URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/5001 |
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Dyuthi-T2070.pdf | (2.425Mb) |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/4987 |
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Dyuthi-T2059.pdf | (3.786Mb) |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/4984 |
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Dyuthi-T2055.pdf | (5.968Mb) |
Abstract: | One of the interesting consequences of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is the black hole solutions. Until the observation made by Hawking in 1970s, it was believed that black holes are perfectly black. The General Theory of Relativity says that black holes are objects which absorb both matter and radiation crossing the event horizon. The event horizon is a surface through which even light is not able to escape. It acts as a one sided membrane that allows the passage of particles only in one direction i.e. towards the center of black holes. All the particles that are absorbed by black hole increases the mass of the black hole and thus the size of event horizon also increases. Hawking showed in 1970s that when applying quantum mechanical laws to black holes they are not perfectly black but they can emit radiation. Thus the black hole can have temperature known as Hawking temperature. In the thesis we have studied some aspects of black holes in f(R) theory of gravity and Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. The scattering of scalar field in this background space time studied in the first chapter shows that the extended black hole will scatter scalar waves and have a scattering cross section and applying tunneling mechanism we have obtained the Hawking temperature of this black hole. In the following chapter we have investigated the quasinormal properties of the extended black hole. We have studied the electromagnetic and scalar perturbations in this space-time and find that the black hole frequencies are complex and show exponential damping indicating the black hole is stable against the perturbations. In the present study we show that not only the black holes exist in modified gravities but also they have similar properties of black hole space times in General Theory of Relativity. 2 + 1 black holes or three dimensional black holes are simplified examples of more complicated four dimensional black holes. Thus these models of black holes are known as toy models of black holes in four dimensional black holes in General theory of Relativity. We have studied some properties of these types of black holes in Einstein model (General Theory of Relativity). A three dimensional black hole known as MSW is taken for our study. The thermodynamics and spectroscopy of MSW black hole are studied and obtained the area spectrum which is equispaced and different thermo dynamical properties are studied. The Dirac perturbation of this three dimensional black hole is studied and the resulting quasinormal spectrum of this three dimensional black hole is obtained. The different quasinormal frequencies are tabulated in tables and these values show an exponential damping of oscillations indicating the black hole is stable against the mass less Dirac perturbation. In General Theory of Relativity almost all solutions contain singularities. The cosmological solution and different black hole solutions of Einstein's field equation contain singularities. The regular black hole solutions are those which are solutions of Einstein's equation and have no singularity at the origin. These solutions possess event horizon but have no central singularity. Such a solution was first put forward by Bardeen. Hayward proposed a similar regular black hole solution. We have studied the thermodynamics and spectroscopy of Hay-ward regular black holes. We have also obtained the different thermodynamic properties and the area spectrum. The area spectrum is a function of the horizon radius. The entropy-heat capacity curve has a discontinuity at some value of entropy showing a phase transition. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/4979 |
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Dyuthi-T2051.pdf | (402.1Kb) |
Saneesh Thesis Front cover.jpg | (3.650Mb) |
Abstract: | Study on variable stars is an important topic of modern astrophysics. After the invention of powerful telescopes and high resolving powered CCD’s, the variable star data is accumulating in the order of peta-bytes. The huge amount of data need lot of automated methods as well as human experts. This thesis is devoted to the data analysis on variable star’s astronomical time series data and hence belong to the inter-disciplinary topic, Astrostatistics. For an observer on earth, stars that have a change in apparent brightness over time are called variable stars. The variation in brightness may be regular (periodic), quasi periodic (semi-periodic) or irregular manner (aperiodic) and are caused by various reasons. In some cases, the variation is due to some internal thermo-nuclear processes, which are generally known as intrinsic vari- ables and in some other cases, it is due to some external processes, like eclipse or rotation, which are known as extrinsic variables. Intrinsic variables can be further grouped into pulsating variables, eruptive variables and flare stars. Extrinsic variables are grouped into eclipsing binary stars and chromospheri- cal stars. Pulsating variables can again classified into Cepheid, RR Lyrae, RV Tauri, Delta Scuti, Mira etc. The eruptive or cataclysmic variables are novae, supernovae, etc., which rarely occurs and are not periodic phenomena. Most of the other variations are periodic in nature. Variable stars can be observed through many ways such as photometry, spectrophotometry and spectroscopy. The sequence of photometric observa- xiv tions on variable stars produces time series data, which contains time, magni- tude and error. The plot between variable star’s apparent magnitude and time are known as light curve. If the time series data is folded on a period, the plot between apparent magnitude and phase is known as phased light curve. The unique shape of phased light curve is a characteristic of each type of variable star. One way to identify the type of variable star and to classify them is by visually looking at the phased light curve by an expert. For last several years, automated algorithms are used to classify a group of variable stars, with the help of computers. Research on variable stars can be divided into different stages like observa- tion, data reduction, data analysis, modeling and classification. The modeling on variable stars helps to determine the short-term and long-term behaviour and to construct theoretical models (for eg:- Wilson-Devinney model for eclips- ing binaries) and to derive stellar properties like mass, radius, luminosity, tem- perature, internal and external structure, chemical composition and evolution. The classification requires the determination of the basic parameters like pe- riod, amplitude and phase and also some other derived parameters. Out of these, period is the most important parameter since the wrong periods can lead to sparse light curves and misleading information. Time series analysis is a method of applying mathematical and statistical tests to data, to quantify the variation, understand the nature of time-varying phenomena, to gain physical understanding of the system and to predict future behavior of the system. Astronomical time series usually suffer from unevenly spaced time instants, varying error conditions and possibility of big gaps. This is due to daily varying daylight and the weather conditions for ground based observations and observations from space may suffer from the impact of cosmic ray particles. Many large scale astronomical surveys such as MACHO, OGLE, EROS, xv ROTSE, PLANET, Hipparcos, MISAO, NSVS, ASAS, Pan-STARRS, Ke- pler,ESA, Gaia, LSST, CRTS provide variable star’s time series data, even though their primary intention is not variable star observation. Center for Astrostatistics, Pennsylvania State University is established to help the astro- nomical community with the aid of statistical tools for harvesting and analysing archival data. Most of these surveys releases the data to the public for further analysis. There exist many period search algorithms through astronomical time se- ries analysis, which can be classified into parametric (assume some underlying distribution for data) and non-parametric (do not assume any statistical model like Gaussian etc.,) methods. Many of the parametric methods are based on variations of discrete Fourier transforms like Generalised Lomb-Scargle peri- odogram (GLSP) by Zechmeister(2009), Significant Spectrum (SigSpec) by Reegen(2007) etc. Non-parametric methods include Phase Dispersion Minimi- sation (PDM) by Stellingwerf(1978) and Cubic spline method by Akerlof(1994) etc. Even though most of the methods can be brought under automation, any of the method stated above could not fully recover the true periods. The wrong detection of period can be due to several reasons such as power leakage to other frequencies which is due to finite total interval, finite sampling interval and finite amount of data. Another problem is aliasing, which is due to the influence of regular sampling. Also spurious periods appear due to long gaps and power flow to harmonic frequencies is an inherent problem of Fourier methods. Hence obtaining the exact period of variable star from it’s time series data is still a difficult problem, in case of huge databases, when subjected to automation. As Matthew Templeton, AAVSO, states “Variable star data analysis is not always straightforward; large-scale, automated analysis design is non-trivial”. Derekas et al. 2007, Deb et.al. 2010 states “The processing of xvi huge amount of data in these databases is quite challenging, even when looking at seemingly small issues such as period determination and classification”. It will be beneficial for the variable star astronomical community, if basic parameters, such as period, amplitude and phase are obtained more accurately, when huge time series databases are subjected to automation. In the present thesis work, the theories of four popular period search methods are studied, the strength and weakness of these methods are evaluated by applying it on two survey databases and finally a modified form of cubic spline method is intro- duced to confirm the exact period of variable star. For the classification of new variable stars discovered and entering them in the “General Catalogue of Vari- able Stars” or other databases like “Variable Star Index“, the characteristics of the variability has to be quantified in term of variable star parameters. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/4978 |
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Dyuthi-T2049.pdf | (19.62Mb) |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2649 |
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Dyuthi-T0709.pdf | (2.198Mb) |
Abstract: | The primary aim of these investigations was to probe the elecnuchemical and material science aspects of some selected metal phthalocyanines(MPcs).Metal phthalocyanines are characterised by a unique planar molecular structure. As a single class of compounds they have been the subject of ever increasing number of physicochemical and technological investigations. During the last two decades the literature on these compounds was flooded by an outpour of original publications and patents. Almost every branch of materials science has benefited by their application-swface coating, printing, electrophotography, photoelectrochemistry, electronics and medicine to name a few.The present study was confined to the electrical and electrochemical properties of cobalt, nickel, zinc. iron and copper phthalocyanines. The use of soluble Pes as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium was also investigated.In the introductory section of the thesis, the work done so far on MPcs is reviewed. In this review emphasis is given to their general methods of synthesis and the physicochemical properties.In phthalocyanine chemistry one of the formidable tasks is the isolation of singular species. In the second chapter the methods of synthesis and purification are presented with necessary experimental details.The studies on plasma modified films of CoPe, FePc, ZnPc. NiPc and CuPc are also presented.Modification of electron transfer process by such films for reversible redox systems is taken as the criterion to establish enhanced electrocatalytic activity.Metal phthalocyanines are p- type semiconductors and the conductivity is enhanced by doping with iodine. The effect of doping on the activation energy of the conduction process is evaluated by measuring the temperature dependent variation of conductivity. Effect of thennal treatment on iodine doped CoPc is investigated by DSC,magnetic susceptibility, IR, ESR and electronic spectra. The elecnucatalytic activity of such doped materials was probed by cyclic voltammetry.The electron transfer mediation characteristics of MPc films depend on the film thickness. The influence of reducing the effective thickness of the MPc film by dispersing it into a conductive polymeric matrix was investigated. Tetrasulphonated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoTSP) was electrostatically immobilised into polyaniline and poly(o-toluidine) under varied conditions.The studies on corrosion inhibition of aluminium by CoTSP and CuTSP and By virtue of their anionic character they are soluble in water and are strongly adsorbed on aluminium. Hence they can act as corrosion inhibitors. CoTSP is also known to catalyze the reduction of dioxygen.This reaction can accelerate the anodic dissolution of metal as a complementary reaction. The influence of these conflicting properties of CoTSP on the corrosion of aluminium was studied and compared with those of CuTSP.In the course of these investigations a number of gadgets like cell for measuring the electrical conductivity of solids under non-isothermal conditions, low power rf oscillator and a rotating disc electrode were fabricated. |
Description: | Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2647 |
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Dyuthi-T0707.pdf | (6.160Mb) |
Description: | Department of Statistics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2574 |
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Dyuthi-T0703.pdf | (5.795Mb) |
Abstract: | In the present study, radio frequency plasma polymerization technique is used to prepare thin films of polyaniline, polypyrrole, poly N-methyl pyrrole and polythiophene. The thermal characterization of these films is carried out using transverse probe beam deflection method. Electrical conductivity and band gaps are also determined. The effect of iodine doping on electrical conductivity and the rate of heat diffusion is explored.Bulk samples of poyaniline and polypyrrole in powder form are synthesized by chemical route. Open photoacoustic cell configuration is employed for the thermal characterization of these samples. The effect of acid doping on heat diffusion in these bulk samples of polyaniline is also investigated. The variation of electrical conductivity of doped polyaniline and polypyrrole with temperature is also studied for drawing conclusion on the nature of conduction in these samples. In order to improve the processability of polyaniline and polypyrrole, these polymers are incorporated into a host matrix of poly vinyl chloride. Measurements of thermal diffusivity and electrical conductivity of these samples are carried out to investigate the variation of these quantities as a function of the content of polyvinyl chloride. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2573 |
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Dyuthi-T0702.pdf | (5.178Mb) |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2572 |
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Dyuthi-T0701.pdf | (6.292Mb) |
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