Faculty of Sciences
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/1616
2015-08-29T18:57:52ZAn in vitro evaluation of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles against ischemia reperfusion in H9c2 Cardiomyoblast
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4984
An in vitro evaluation of selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles against ischemia reperfusion in H9c2 Cardiomyoblast
Soumya, R S; Raghu, K G
2015-01-01T00:00:00ZStudies on scattering and thermodynamics of black holes in f(R) theory and Einstein's theory
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4979
Studies on scattering and thermodynamics of black holes in f(R) theory and Einstein's theory
Saneesh, Sebastian; Kuriakose, V C
One of the interesting consequences of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is the black hole solutions. Until the observation made by Hawking in 1970s, it was believed that black holes are perfectly black. The General Theory of Relativity says that black holes are objects which absorb both matter and radiation crossing the event horizon. The event horizon is a surface through which even light is not able to escape. It acts as a one sided membrane that allows the passage of particles only in one direction i.e. towards the center of black holes. All the particles that are absorbed by black hole increases the mass of the black hole and thus the size of event horizon also increases. Hawking showed in 1970s that when applying quantum mechanical laws to black holes they are not perfectly black but they can emit radiation. Thus the black hole can have temperature known as Hawking temperature. In the thesis we have studied some aspects of black holes in f(R) theory of gravity and Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. The scattering of scalar field in this background space time studied in the first chapter shows that the extended black hole will scatter scalar waves and have a scattering cross section and applying tunneling mechanism we have obtained the Hawking temperature of this black hole. In the following chapter we have investigated the quasinormal properties of the extended black hole. We have studied the electromagnetic and scalar perturbations in this space-time and find that the black hole frequencies are complex and show exponential damping indicating the black hole is stable against the perturbations. In the present study we show that not only the black holes exist in modified gravities but also they have similar properties of black hole space times in General Theory of Relativity. 2 + 1 black holes or three dimensional black holes are simplified examples of more complicated four dimensional black holes. Thus these models of black holes are known as toy models of black holes in four dimensional black holes in General theory of Relativity. We have studied some properties of these types of black holes in Einstein model (General Theory of Relativity). A three dimensional black hole known as MSW is taken for our study. The thermodynamics and spectroscopy of MSW black hole are studied and obtained the area spectrum which is equispaced and
different thermo dynamical properties are studied. The Dirac perturbation of this three dimensional black hole is studied and the resulting quasinormal spectrum of this three dimensional black hole is obtained. The different quasinormal frequencies are tabulated in tables and these values show an exponential damping of oscillations indicating the black hole is stable against the mass less Dirac perturbation. In General Theory of Relativity almost all solutions contain singularities. The cosmological solution and different black hole solutions of Einstein's field equation contain singularities. The regular black hole solutions are those which are solutions of Einstein's equation and have no singularity at the origin. These solutions possess event horizon but have no central singularity. Such a solution was first put forward by Bardeen. Hayward proposed a similar regular black hole solution. We have studied the thermodynamics and spectroscopy of Hay-ward regular black holes. We have also obtained the different thermodynamic properties and the area spectrum. The area spectrum is a function of the horizon radius. The entropy-heat capacity curve has a discontinuity at some value
of entropy showing a phase transition.
2014-12-01T00:00:00ZStudy on period search methods of variable stars: Application to ASAS and CRTS databases
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4978
Study on period search methods of variable stars: Application to ASAS and CRTS databases
Shaju, K Y; Ramesh Babu, T
Study on variable stars is an important topic of modern astrophysics. After
the invention of powerful telescopes and high resolving powered CCD’s, the
variable star data is accumulating in the order of peta-bytes. The huge amount
of data need lot of automated methods as well as human experts. This thesis
is devoted to the data analysis on variable star’s astronomical time series data
and hence belong to the inter-disciplinary topic, Astrostatistics.
For an observer on earth, stars that have a change in apparent brightness
over time are called variable stars. The variation in brightness may be regular
(periodic), quasi periodic (semi-periodic) or irregular manner (aperiodic) and
are caused by various reasons. In some cases, the variation is due to some
internal thermo-nuclear processes, which are generally known as intrinsic vari-
ables and in some other cases, it is due to some external processes, like eclipse
or rotation, which are known as extrinsic variables. Intrinsic variables can
be further grouped into pulsating variables, eruptive variables and flare stars.
Extrinsic variables are grouped into eclipsing binary stars and chromospheri-
cal stars. Pulsating variables can again classified into Cepheid, RR Lyrae, RV
Tauri, Delta Scuti, Mira etc. The eruptive or cataclysmic variables are novae,
supernovae, etc., which rarely occurs and are not periodic phenomena. Most
of the other variations are periodic in nature.
Variable stars can be observed through many ways such as photometry,
spectrophotometry and spectroscopy. The sequence of photometric observa-
xiv
tions on variable stars produces time series data, which contains time, magni-
tude and error. The plot between variable star’s apparent magnitude and time
are known as light curve. If the time series data is folded on a period, the plot
between apparent magnitude and phase is known as phased light curve. The
unique shape of phased light curve is a characteristic of each type of variable
star. One way to identify the type of variable star and to classify them is by
visually looking at the phased light curve by an expert. For last several years,
automated algorithms are used to classify a group of variable stars, with the
help of computers.
Research on variable stars can be divided into different stages like observa-
tion, data reduction, data analysis, modeling and classification. The modeling
on variable stars helps to determine the short-term and long-term behaviour
and to construct theoretical models (for eg:- Wilson-Devinney model for eclips-
ing binaries) and to derive stellar properties like mass, radius, luminosity, tem-
perature, internal and external structure, chemical composition and evolution.
The classification requires the determination of the basic parameters like pe-
riod, amplitude and phase and also some other derived parameters. Out of
these, period is the most important parameter since the wrong periods can
lead to sparse light curves and misleading information.
Time series analysis is a method of applying mathematical and statistical
tests to data, to quantify the variation, understand the nature of time-varying
phenomena, to gain physical understanding of the system and to predict future
behavior of the system. Astronomical time series usually suffer from unevenly
spaced time instants, varying error conditions and possibility of big gaps. This
is due to daily varying daylight and the weather conditions for ground based
observations and observations from space may suffer from the impact of cosmic
ray particles.
Many large scale astronomical surveys such as MACHO, OGLE, EROS,
xv
ROTSE, PLANET, Hipparcos, MISAO, NSVS, ASAS, Pan-STARRS, Ke-
pler,ESA, Gaia, LSST, CRTS provide variable star’s time series data, even
though their primary intention is not variable star observation. Center for
Astrostatistics, Pennsylvania State University is established to help the astro-
nomical community with the aid of statistical tools for harvesting and analysing
archival data. Most of these surveys releases the data to the public for further
analysis.
There exist many period search algorithms through astronomical time se-
ries analysis, which can be classified into parametric (assume some underlying
distribution for data) and non-parametric (do not assume any statistical model
like Gaussian etc.,) methods. Many of the parametric methods are based on
variations of discrete Fourier transforms like Generalised Lomb-Scargle peri-
odogram (GLSP) by Zechmeister(2009), Significant Spectrum (SigSpec) by
Reegen(2007) etc. Non-parametric methods include Phase Dispersion Minimi-
sation (PDM) by Stellingwerf(1978) and Cubic spline method by Akerlof(1994)
etc.
Even though most of the methods can be brought under automation, any of
the method stated above could not fully recover the true periods. The wrong
detection of period can be due to several reasons such as power leakage to
other frequencies which is due to finite total interval, finite sampling interval
and finite amount of data. Another problem is aliasing, which is due to the
influence of regular sampling. Also spurious periods appear due to long gaps
and power flow to harmonic frequencies is an inherent problem of Fourier
methods. Hence obtaining the exact period of variable star from it’s time
series data is still a difficult problem, in case of huge databases, when subjected
to automation. As Matthew Templeton, AAVSO, states “Variable star data
analysis is not always straightforward; large-scale, automated analysis design
is non-trivial”. Derekas et al. 2007, Deb et.al. 2010 states “The processing of
xvi
huge amount of data in these databases is quite challenging, even when looking
at seemingly small issues such as period determination and classification”.
It will be beneficial for the variable star astronomical community, if basic
parameters, such as period, amplitude and phase are obtained more accurately,
when huge time series databases are subjected to automation. In the present
thesis work, the theories of four popular period search methods are studied, the
strength and weakness of these methods are evaluated by applying it on two
survey databases and finally a modified form of cubic spline method is intro-
duced to confirm the exact period of variable star. For the classification of new
variable stars discovered and entering them in the “General Catalogue of Vari-
able Stars” or other databases like “Variable Star Index“, the characteristics
of the variability has to be quantified in term of variable star parameters.
2013-11-01T00:00:00ZCatalysis by Modified Pillared Clays and Porous Clay Heterostructures
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4977
Catalysis by Modified Pillared Clays and Porous Clay Heterostructures
Nissam, E; Sugunan, S
In this venture three distinct class of catalysts such as, pillared clays and
transition metal loaded pillared clays , porous clay heterostructures and their
transition metal loaded analogues and DTP supported on porous clay
heterostructures etc. were prepared and characterized by various physico chemical
methods. The catalytic activities of prepared catalysts were comparatively
evaluated for the industrially important alkylation, acetalization and oxidation
reactions.The general conclusions drawn from the present investigation are
Zirconium, iron - aluminium pillared clays were synthesized by ion
exchange method and zirconium-silicon porous heterostructures were
Summary and conclusions
259
prepared by intergallery template method. Transition metals were loaded
in PILCs and PCHs by wet impregnation method.
Textural and acidic properties of the clays were modified by pillaring
and post pillaring modifications.
The shift in 2θ value to lower range and increase in d (001) spacing
indicate the success of pillaring process.
Surface area, pore volume, average pore size etc. increased dramatically
as a result of pillaring process.
Porous clay heterostructures have higher surface area, pore volume,
average pore diameter and narrow pore size distribution than that of
pillared clays.
The IR spectrum of PILCs and PCHs are in accordance with literature
without much variation compared to parent montmorillonite which
indicate that basic clay structure is retained even after modification.
The silicon NMR of PCHs materials have intense peaks corresponding
to Q4 environment which indicate that mesoporous silica is incorporated
between clay layers.
Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that thermal stability is improved
after the pillaring process. PCH materials have higher thermal stability
than PILCs.
In metal loaded pillared clays, up to 5% metal species were uniformly
dispersed (with the exception of Ni) as evident from XRD and TPR
analysis.
Chapter 9
260
Impregnation of transition metals in PILCs and PCHs enhanced acidity
of catalysts as evident from TPD of ammonia and cumene cracking
reactions.
For porous clay heterostructures the acidic sites have major contribution
from weak and medium acid sites which can be related to the Bronsted
sites as evident from TPD of ammonia.
Pillared clays got more Lewis acidity than PCHs as inferred from α-
methyl styrene selectivity in cumene cracking reaction.
SEM images show that layer structure is preserved even after modification.
Worm hole like morphology is observed in TEM image of PCHs materials
In ZrSiPCHS, Zr exists as Zr 4+ and is incorporated to silica pillars in the
intergallary of clay layers as evident from XPS analysis.
In copper loaded zirconium pillared clays, copper exists as isolated species
with +2 oxidation state at lower loading. At higher loading, Cu exists as
clusters as evident from reduction peak at higher temperatures in TPR.
In vanadium incorporated PILCs and PCHs, vanadium exist as isolated
V5+ in tetrahedral coordination which is confirmed from TPR and UVVis
DRS analysis.
In cobalt loaded PCHs, cobalt exists as CoO with 2+ oxidation state as
confirmed from XPS.
Cerium incorporated iron aluminium pillared clay was found to be the
best catalyst for the hydroxylation of phenol in aqueous media due to
the additional surface area provided by ceria mesopores and its redox
properties.
Summary and conclusions
261
Cobalt loaded zirconium porous clay heterostructures were found to be
promising catalyst for the tertiary butylation of phenol due to higher
surface area and acidic properties.
Copper loaded pillared clays were found to be good catalyst for the
direct hydroxylation of benzene to phenol.
Vanadium loaded PCHs catalysts were found to be efficient catalysts for
oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
DTP was firmly fixed on the mesoporous channels of PCHs by Direct
method and functionalization method.
DTP supported PCHs catalyst were found to be good catalyst for
acetalization of cyclohexanone with more than 90% conversion.
2014-10-01T00:00:00Z