Faculty of Scienceshttp://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/16162015-04-21T14:41:47Z2015-04-21T14:41:47ZStudies on the use of Nanokaolin, MWCNT and Graphene in NBR and SBRPreetha Nair, KDr.Rani, JosephDr.Mathiazhagan, Ahttp://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/49402015-04-18T20:30:41Z2013-07-17T00:00:00ZStudies on the use of Nanokaolin, MWCNT and Graphene in NBR and SBR
Preetha Nair, K; Dr.Rani, Joseph; Dr.Mathiazhagan, A
The current research investigates the possibility of using unmodified and modified nanokaolin, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and graphene as fillers to impart enhancement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties to the elastomers. Taking advantage of latex blending method, nanoclay, MWCNT and graphene dispersions, prepared by ultra sound sonication are dispersed in polymer latices. The improvement in material properties indicated better interaction between filler and the polymer.MWCNT and graphene imparted electrical conductivity with simultaneous improvement in mechanical properties. Layered silicates prepared by microwave method also significantly improve the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The thesis entitled ‘Studies on the use of Nanokaolin, MWCNT and Graphene in NBR and SBR’ consists of ten chapters. The first chapter is a concise introduction of nanocomposites, nanofillers, elastomeric matrices and applications of polymer nanocomposites. The state-of-art research in elastomer based nanocomposites is also presented. At the end of this chapter the main objectives of the work are mentioned. Chapter 2 outlines the specifications of various materials used, details of experimental techniques employed for preparing and characterizing nanocomposites. Chapter3 includes characterization of the nanofillers, optimsation of cure time of latex based composites and the methods used for the preparation of latex based and dry rubber based nanocomposites. Chapter4 presents the reinforcing effect of the nanofillers in XNBR latex and the characterization of the nanocomposites. Chapter5 comprises the effect of nanofillers on the properties of SBR latex and their characterization Chapter 6 deals with the study of cure characteristics, mechanical and thermal properties and the characterization of NBR based nanocomposites.
Chapter7 is the microwave studies of MWCNT and graphene filled elastomeric nanocomposites. Chapter 8 gives details of the preparation of layered silicates, their characterization and use in different elastomeric matrices. Chapter 9 is the study of mechanical properties of nanoclay incorporated nitrile gloves .Chapter 10 presents the summary and conclusions of the investigation.
2013-07-17T00:00:00ZProperties of Equilibrium Distributions of Order nPreeth, MDr.Unnikrishnan Nair, Nhttp://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/49392015-04-18T20:30:40Z2014-06-01T00:00:00ZProperties of Equilibrium Distributions of Order n
Preeth, M; Dr.Unnikrishnan Nair, N
The present work is intended to discuss various properties and reliability aspects of
higher order equilibrium distributions in continuous, discrete and multivariate cases, which contribute to the study on equilibrium distributions. At first, we have to study and consolidate the existing literature on equilibrium distributions. For this we need some basic concepts in reliability. These are being discussed in the 2nd chapter, In Chapter 3, some identities connecting the failure rate functions and moments of residual life of the univariate, non-negative continuous equilibrium distributions of higher order and that of the baseline distribution are derived. These identities are then used to characterize the generalized Pareto model, mixture of exponentials and gamma distribution. An approach using the characteristic functions is also discussed with illustrations. Moreover, characterizations of ageing classes using stochastic orders has been discussed. Part of the results of this chapter has been reported in Nair and Preeth (2009). Various properties of equilibrium distributions of non-negative discrete univariate random variables are discussed in Chapter 4. Then some characterizations of the geo- metric, Waring and negative hyper-geometric distributions are presented. Moreover, the ageing properties of the original distribution and nth order equilibrium distribu- tions are compared. Part of the results of this chapter have been reported in Nair, Sankaran and Preeth (2012). Chapter 5 is a continuation of Chapter 4. Here, several conditions, in terms of stochastic orders connecting the baseline and its equilibrium distributions are derived. These conditions can be used to rede_ne certain ageing notions. Then equilibrium distributions of two random variables are compared in terms of various stochastic orders that have implications in reliability applications.
In Chapter 6, we make two approaches to de_ne multivariate equilibrium distribu-
tions of order n. Then various properties including characterizations of higher order equilibrium distributions are presented. Part of the results of this chapter have been reported in Nair and Preeth (2008). The Thesis is concluded in Chapter 7. A discussion on further studies on equilib- rium distributions is also made in this chapter.
2014-06-01T00:00:00ZA study on semigroup action on fuzzy subsets, inverse fuzzy automata and related topicsPamy, SebastianDr.Johnson, T Phttp://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/49382015-04-18T20:30:39Z2014-06-16T00:00:00ZA study on semigroup action on fuzzy subsets, inverse fuzzy automata and related topics
Pamy, Sebastian; Dr.Johnson, T P
This thesis comprises five chapters including the introductory chapter. This includes a brief introduction and basic definitions of fuzzy set theory and its applications, semigroup action on sets, finite semigroup theory, its application in automata theory along with references which are used in this thesis. In the second chapter we defined an S-fuzzy subset of X with the extension of the notion of semigroup action of S on X to semigroup action of S on to a fuzzy subset of X using Zadeh's maximal extension principal and proved some results based on this. We also defined an S-fuzzy morphism between two S-fuzzy subsets of X and they together form a category S FSETX. Some general properties and special objects in this category are studied and finally proved that S SET and S FSET are
categorically equivalent. Further we tried to generalize this concept to the action of a fuzzy semigroup on fuzzy subsets. As an application, using the above idea, we convert a _nite state automaton to a finite fuzzy state automaton. A classical automata determine whether a word is accepted by the automaton where as a _nite fuzzy state automaton determine the degree of acceptance of the word by the automaton. 1.5. Summary of the Thesis 17 In the third chapter we de_ne regular and inverse fuzzy automata, its construction, and prove that the corresponding transition monoids are regular and inverse monoids respectively. The languages accepted by an inverse fuzzy automata is an inverse fuzzy language and we give a characterization of an inverse fuzzy language. We study some of its algebraic properties and prove that the collection IFL on an alphabet does not form a variety since it is not closed under inverse homomorphic images. We also prove some results based on the fact that a semigroup is inverse if and only if idempotents commute and every L-class or R-class contains a unique idempotent. Fourth chapter includes a study of the structure of the automorphism group of a deterministic faithful inverse fuzzy automaton and prove that it is equal to a subgroup of the inverse monoid of all one-one partial fuzzy transformations on the state set. In the fifth chapter we define min-weighted and max-weighted power
automata study some of its algebraic properties and prove that a fuzzy automaton and the fuzzy power automata associated with it have the same transition monoids.
The thesis ends with a conclusion of the work done and the scope of further study.
2014-06-16T00:00:00Zβ-glucosidases from Aspergillus unguis NII 08123: Molecular characterization, properties and applicationsRajasree, K PRajeev Kumar, Sukumaranhttp://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/49372015-04-18T20:30:39Z2013-12-20T00:00:00Zβ-glucosidases from Aspergillus unguis NII 08123: Molecular characterization, properties and applications
Rajasree, K P; Rajeev Kumar, Sukumaran
Lignocellulosic biomass is probably the best alternative resource for biofuel production and it is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Cellulose is the most abundant among the three and conversion of cellulose to glucose is catalyzed by the enzyme cellulase. Cellulases are groups of enzymes act synergistically upon cellulose to produce glucose and comprise of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase. β -glucosidase assumes great importance due to the fact that it is the rate limiting enzyme. Endoglucanases (EG) produces nicks in the cellulose polymer exposing reducing and non reducing ends, cellobiohydrolases (CBH) acts upon the reducing or non reducing ends to liberate cellobiose units, and β - glucosidases (BGL) cleaves the cellobiose to liberate glucose completing the hydrolysis. . β -glucosidases undergo feedback inhibition by their own product- β glucose, and cellobiose which is their substrate. Few filamentous fungi produce glucose tolerant β - glucosidases which can overcome this inhibition by tolerating the product concentration to a particular threshold.
The present study had targeted a filamentous fungus producing glucose tolerant β -
glucosidase which was identified by morphological as well as molecular method. The fungus showed 99% similarity to Aspergillus unguis strain which comes under the Aspergillus nidulans group where most of the glucose tolerant β -glucosidase belongs. The culture was designated the strain number NII 08123 and was deposited in the NII culture collection at CSIR-NIIST. β -glucosidase multiplicity is a common occurrence in fungal world and in A.unguis this was demonstrated using zymogram analysis. A total 5 extracellular isoforms were detected in fungus and the expression levels of these five isoforms varied based on the carbon source
available in the medium. Three of these 5 isoforms were expressed in higher levels as identified by the increased fluorescence (due to larger amounts of MUG breakdown by enzyme action) and was speculated to contribute significantly to the total _- β glucosidase activity. These isoforms were named as BGL 1, BGL3 and BGL 5. Among the three, BGL5 was demonstrated to be the glucose tolerant β -glucosidase and this was a low molecular weight protein. Major fraction was a
high molecular weight protein but with lesser tolerance to glucose. BGL 3 was between the two in both activity and glucose tolerance.121 Glucose tolerant .β -glucosidase was purified and characterized and kinetic analysis showed that the glucose inhibition constant (Ki) of the protein is 800mM and Km and Vmax of the
enzyme was found to be 4.854 mM and 2.946 mol min-1mg protein-1respectively. The optimumtemperature was 60°C and pH 6.0. The molecular weight of the purified protein was ~10kDa in both SDS as well as Native PAGE indicating that the glucose tolerant BGL is a monomeric protein.The major β -glucosidase, BGL1 had a pH and temperature optima of 5.0 and 60 °C respectively. The apparent molecular weight of the Native protein is 240kDa. The Vmax and Km was 78.8 mol min-1mg protein-1 and 0.326mM respectively. Degenerate primers were designed for glycosyl hydrolase families 1, 3 and 5 and the BGL genes were amplified from genomic DNA of Aspergillus unguis. The sequence analyses performed on the amplicons results confirmed the presence of all the three genes. Amplicon with a size of ~500bp was sequenced and which matched to a GH1 –BGL from Aspergillus oryzae. GH3 degenerate primers producing amplicons were sequenced and the sequences matched to β - glucosidase of GH3 family from Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus acculateus. GH5 degenerate primers also gave amplification and sequencing results indicated the presence of GH5 family BGL gene in the Aspergillus unguis genomic DNA.From the partial gene sequencing results, specific as well as degenerate primers were designed for TAIL PCR. Sequencing results of the 1.0 Kb amplicon matched Aspergillus nidulans β -glucosidase gene which belongs to the GH1 family. The sequence mainly covered the N-Terminal region of the matching peptide. All the three BGL proteins ie. BGL1, BGL3 and BGL5 were purified by chromatography an electro elution from Native PAGE gels and were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. The results showed that BGL1 peptide mass matched to . β -glucosidase-I
of Aspergillus flavus which is a 92kDa protein with 69% protein coverage. The glucose tolerant β -glucosidase BGL5 mass matched to the catalytic C-terminal domain of β -glucosidase-F from Emericella nidulans, but the protein coverage was very low compared to the size of the Emericella nidulans protein. While comparing the size of BGL5 from Aspergillus unguis, the protein sequence coverage is more than 80%. BGL F is a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 protein.The properties of BGL5 seem to be very unique, in that it is a GH3 β -glucosidase with a very low molecular weight of ~10kDa and at the same time having catalytic activity and glucose 122 tolerance which is as yet un-described in GH β -glucosidases. The occurrence of a fully functional 10kDA protein with glucose tolerant BGL activity has tremendous implications both from the points of understanding the structure function relationships as well as for applications of
BGL enzymes. BGL-3 showed similarity to BGL1 of Aspergillus aculateus which was another GH3 β -glucosidase. It may be noted that though PCR could detect GH1, GH3 and GH5 β-glucosidases in the fungus, the major isoforms BGL1 BGL3 and BGL5 were all GH3 family enzymes. This would imply that β-glucosidases belonging to other families may also co-exist in the fungus and the other minor isoforms detected in zymograms may account for them. In biomass hydrolysis, GT-BGL containing BGL enzyme was supplemented to cellulase
and the performances of blends were compared with a cocktail where commercial β- glucosidase was supplemented to the biomass hydrolyzing enzyme preparation. The cocktail supplemented with A unguis BGL preparation yielded 555mg/g sugar in 12h compared to the commercial enzyme preparation which gave only 333mg/g in the same period and the maximum sugar yield of 858 mg/g was attained in 36h by the cocktail containing A. unguis BGL. While the commercial enzyme achieved almost similar sugar yield in 24h, there was rapid drop in sugar concentration after that, indicating probably the conversion of glucose back to di-or oligosaccharides by the transglycosylation activity of the BGl in that preparation. Compared this,
the A.unguis enzyme containing preparation supported peak yields for longer duration (upto 48h) which is important for biomass conversion to other products since the hydrolysate has to undergo certain unit operations before it goes into the next stage ie – fermentation in any bioprocesses for production of either fuels or chemicals.. Most importantly the Aspergillus unguis BGL preparation yields approximately 1.6 fold increase in the sugar release compared to the commercial BGL within 12h of time interval and 2.25 fold increase in the sugar release compared to the control ie. Cellulase without BGL supplementation. The current study therefore leads to the identification of a potent new isolate producing glucose tolerant β - glucosidase. The organism identified as Aspergillus unguis comes under the Aspergillus nidulans group where most of the GT-BGL producers belong and the detailed studies showed that the glucose tolerant β -glucosidase was a very low molecular weight protein which probably belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 3. Inhibition kinetic studies helped to understand the Ki and it is the second highest among the nidulans group of Aspergilli. This has promoted us for a detailed study regarding the mechanism of glucose tolerance. The proteomic 123
analyses clearly indicate the presence of GH3 catalytic domain in the protein. Since the size of the protein is very low and still its active and showed glucose tolerance it is speculated that this could be an entirely new protein or the modification of the existing β -glucosidase with only the catalytic domain present in it. Hydrolysis experiments also qualify this BGL, a suitable candidate for the enzyme cocktail development for biomass hydrolysis
2013-12-20T00:00:00Z