Now showing items 1-20 of 601
Next PageAbstract: | The synthesis and reactions of simple derivatives of 2(3H)- and 3(2H)furanones have attracted considerable attention in recent years, primarily in connection with development of routes to antitumor agents that contain this ring as central structural unit. They also serve as useful synthetic building blocks for lactones and furans and are the precursors of a wide variety of biologically important heterocyclic systems. Although a number of syntheses of furanones were known they were in many cases limited to specific substitution pattems. The development of altemative strategies for the preparation of these heterocycles is therefore of considerable importance or continues to be a challenge.We propose to develop new and general approaches to the synthesis of furanone ring systems from simple and readily available starting materials since we were interested in examining their rich photochemistry. The photochemical reactivity of Beta,gama-unsaturated lactams and lactones is a subject of current interest. Some of the prominent photoreaction pathways of unsaturated lactones include decarbonylation, solvent addition to double bonds, decarboxylation, migration of aryl substituents and dimerisation. lt was reported earlier that the critical requirement for clean photochemical cleavage of the acyl-oxygen bond is the presence ofa double bond adjacent to the ether oxygen and 2(3H)-furanones possessing this structural requirement undergo facile decarbonylation. But related phenanthrofuranones are isolated as photostable end products upon irradiation. Hence we propose to synthesis a few phenanthro-2(3H)-furanones to study the effect of a radical stabilising group at 3-position of furanone ring on photolysis. To explore the tripletmediated transformations of 2(3H)-furanones in polar and nonpolar solvents a few 3,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-5-aryl-3H-furan-2-ones and 3,3-di(p-tolyl)-5-aryl- 3H-furan-2-ones were synthesised from the corresponding dibenzoylstyrene precursors by neat thermolysis. Our aim was to study the nature of intermediates involved in these transformations.We also explored the possibility of developing a new and general approach to the synthesis of 3(2H)-furanones from simple and readily available starting materials since such general procedures are not available. The protocol developed by us employs readily available phenanthrenequinone and various 4-substituted acetophenones as starting materials and provides easy access to the required 3(2H)-furanone targets. These furanone derivatives have immense potential for further investigations .We also aimed the synthesis of a few dibenzoylalkene-type systems such as acenaphthenone-2—ylidene ketones and phenanthrenone-9-ylidene ketones. These systems were expected to undergo thermal rearrangement to give furanones and spirofuranones. Also these systems can be categorised as quinonemethides which are valuable synthetic intermediates. |
Description: | Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2915 |
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Dyuthi-T0906.pdf | (3.984Mb) |
Abstract: | The work is an attempt to understand the role of 5-HT, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors in the regulation of liver cell proliferation using in vivo and in vitro models. The work also focuses on the brain serotonergic changes associated with hapatocyte proliferation and apoptosis to delineate its regulatory function. The investigation of mechanisms involving different models of hepatocyte proliferation contributes to our knowledge about serotonergic regulation of cell growth, apoptosis and carcinogenesis of liver. The study reveals that the alteration of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptor function and gene expression in the brain stem, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus play an important role in the sympathetic regulation of cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and apoptosis. The functional balance between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptor plays an important role in regulating hepatocyte proliferation, neoplastic transformation and hepatic apoptosis. The regulatory role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptor during neoplastic transformation and apoptosis could lead to possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment of cancers and have immense clinical importance. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/118 |
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Dyuthi-T0004.pdf | (3.305Mb) |
Description: | Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2347 |
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Dyuthi-T0617.pdf | (5.789Mb) |
Description: | Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/purl/1987 |
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Dyuthi-T0371.pdf | (1.558Mb) |
Description: | Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2246 |
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Dyuthi-T0715.pdf | (4.650Mb) |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1719 |
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Dyuthi-T0016.pdf | (1.710Mb) |
Abstract: | New mathematical methods to analytically investigate linear acoustic radiation and scattering from cylindrical bodies and transducer arrays are presented. Three problems of interest involving cylinders in an infinite fluid are studied. In all the three problems, the Helmholtz equation is used to model propagation through the fluid and the beam patterns of arrays of transducers are studied. In the first problem, a method is presented to determine the omni-directional and directional far-field pressures radiated by a cylindrical transducer array in an infinite rigid cylindrical baffle. The solution to the Helmholtz equation and the displacement continuity condition at the interface between the array and the surrounding water are used to determine the pressure. The displacement of the surface of each transducer is in the direction of the normal to the array and is assumed to be uniform. Expressions are derived for the pressure radiated by a sector of the array vibrating in-phase, the entire array vibrating in-phase, and a sector of the array phase-shaded to simulate radiation from a rectangular piston. It is shown that the uniform displacement required for generating a source level of 220 dB ref. μPa @ 1m that is omni directional in the azimuthal plane is in the order of 1 micron for typical arrays. Numerical results are presented to show that there is only a small difference between the on-axis pressures radiated by phased cylindrical arrays and planar arrays. The problem is of interest because cylindrical arrays of projectors are often used to search for underwater objects. In the second problem, the errors, when using data-independent, classical, energy and split beam correlation methods, in finding the direction of arrival (DOA) of a plane acoustic wave, caused by the presence of a solid circular elastic cylindrical stiffener near a linear array of hydrophones, are investigated. Scattering from the effectively infinite cylinder is modeled using the exact axisymmetric equations of motion and the total pressures at the hydrophone locations are computed. The effect of the radius of the cylinder, a, the distance between the cylinder and the array, b, the number of hydrophones in the array, 2H, and the angle of incidence of the wave, α, on the error in finding the DOA are illustrated using numerical results. For an array that is about 30 times the wavelength and for small angles of incidence (α<10), the error in finding the DOA using the energy method is less than that using the split beam correlation method with beam steered to α; and in some cases, the error increases when b increases; and the errors in finding the DOA using the energy method and the split beam correlation method with beam steered to α vary approximately as a7 / 4 . The problem is of interest because elastic stiffeners – in nearly acoustically transparent sonar domes that are used to protect arrays of transducers – scatter waves that are incident on it and cause an error in the estimated direction of arrival of the wave. In the third problem, a high-frequency ray-acoustics method is presented and used to determine the interior pressure field when a plane wave is normally incident on a fluid cylinder embedded in another infinite fluid. The pressure field is determined by using geometrical and physical acoustics. The interior pressure is expressed as the sum of the pressures due to all rays that pass through a point. Numerical results are presented for ka = 20 to 100 where k is the acoustic wavenumber of the exterior fluid and a is the radius of the cylinder. The results are in good agreement with those obtained using field theory. The directional responses, to the plane wave, of sectors of a circular array of uniformly distributed hydrophones in the embedded cylinder are then computed. The sectors are used to simulate linear arrays with uniformly distributed normals by using delays. The directional responses are compared with the output from an array in an infinite homogenous fluid. These outputs are of interest as they are used to determine the direction of arrival of the plane wave. Numerical results are presented for a circular array with 32 hydrophones and 12 hydrophones in each sector. The problem is of interest because arrays of hydrophones are housed inside sonar domes and acoustic plane waves from distant sources are scattered by the dome filled with fresh water and cause deterioration in the performance of the array. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2942 |
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Dyuthi-T0933.pdf | (5.620Mb) |
Abstract: | In the present work, the role of oxygen, epinephrine and glucose supplementation in regulating neurotransmitter contents, adrenergic and glutamate receptor binding parameters in the cerebral cortex of experimental groups of neonatal rats were investigated. The study of neurotransmitters and their receptors in the cerebral cortex and the EEG pattern in the brain regions of neonatal rats were taken as index for brain damage due to hypoxia, oxygen and epinephrine. Real-Time PCR work was done to confirm the binding parameters. Second messenger, cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) was assayed to find the functional correlation of the receptors. Behavioural studies were carried out to confirm the biochemical and molecular studies. The efficient and timely supplementation of glucose plays a crucial role in correcting the molecular changes due to hypoxia, oxygen and epinephrine. The addictive neuronal damage effect due to oxygen and epinephrine treatment is another important observation. The corrective measures from the molecular study brought to practice will lead to maintain healthy intellectual capacity during the later developmental stages, which has immense clinical significance in neonatal care. |
Description: | Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2808 |
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Dyuthi-T0829.pdf | (8.903Mb) |
Abstract: | In the present study, the changes in the brain EPI (Epinephrine), adrenergic receptors and the receptor gene expression were investigated during pancreatic regeneration and insulin secretion. The changes in the pancreatic islet EPI and adrenergic receptors were also studied in the pancreatectomised rats. The regulatory function of EPI in association with Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glucose were investigated in rat islet cultures. In vitro studies were carried out using antagonists for adrenergic receptor subtypes to see their involvement in the islet DNA synthesis. The mechanism by which the peripheral EPI regulate insulin secretion was also investigated by studying the nuclear binding proteins in the pancreatic islets during pancreatic regeneration and diabetes. The study reveals that EPI can regulate the pancreatic islet cell proliferation by controlling the insulin synthesis and secretion. The brain adrenergic receptor gene expression and functional correlation regulate the pancreatic adrenergic receptors. The functional balance of α and β-adrenergic receptors controls the insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation, which will have immense clinical significance in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/110 |
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Dyuthi-T0003.pdf | (4.240Mb) |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1725 |
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Dyuthi-T0017.pdf | (1.946Mb) |
Abstract: | The thesis entitled “Alkaline Protease Production by Marine Fungus Engyodontium BTMFS 10”.Proteases are the single class of enzymes, which occupy a pivotal position with respect to their application in both physiological and commercial filed. Protease in the industrial market is expected to increase further in the coming year. The current trend is to use microbial enzymes since they provide a greater diversity of catalytic activities and can be produced more economically. Main objective of theses studies are the optimization of various physicochemical factors in the solid state fermentation for the production of alkaline protease enzyme, characterization of the enzyme, evaluation of the enzyme for various industrial application. The result obtained the during the course of theses study indicate the scope for the utilization of this study Marine Fungus E. Album for extra cellular protease production employing solid state fermentation |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1087 |
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Dyuthi-T0551.pdf | (10.55Mb) |
Abstract: | This work mainly concentrate to understand the optical and electrical properties of amorphous zinc tin oxide and amorphous zinc indium tin oxide thin films for TFT applications. Amorphous materials are promising in achieving better device performance on temperature sensitive substrates compared to polycrystalline materials. Most of these amorphous oxides are multicomponent and as such there exists the need for an optimized chemical composition. For this we have to make individual targets with required chemical composition to use it in conventional thin film deposition techniques like PLD and sputtering. Instead, if we use separate targets for each of the cationic element and if separately control the power during the simultaneous sputtering process, then we can change the chemical composition by simply adjusting the sputtering power. This is what is done in co-sputtering technique. Eventhough there had some reports about thin film deposition using this technique, there was no reports about the use of this technique in TFT fabrication until very recent time. Hence in this work, co-sputtering has performed as a major technique for thin film deposition and TFT fabrication. PLD were also performed as it is a relatively new technique and allows the use high oxygen pressure during deposition. This helps to control the carrier density in the channel and also favours the smooth film surface. Both these properties are crucial in TFT.Zinc tin oxide material is interesting in the sense that it does not contain costly indium. Eventhough some works were already reported in ZTO based TFTs, there was no systematic study about ZTO thin film's various optoelectronic properties from a TFT manufacturing perspective. Attempts have made to analyse the ZTO films prepared by PLD and co-sputtering. As more type of cations present in the film, chances are high to form an amorphous phase. Zinc indium tin oxide is studied as a multicomponent oxide material suitable for TFT fabrication. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2519 |
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Dyuthi-T0678.pdf | (10.18Mb) |
Abstract: | In the present work, we describe our efforts to develop device quality CuInSe2, films through low cost, simple and eco-friendly hybrid techniques. The most important point to be highlighted here is that the method fully avoids the use of poisonous gases such as H2Se/Se vapour. Instead, selenisation is achieved through solid state reaction between amorphous selenium and polycrystalline metal layers resulting in both binary and ternary selenides. Thin films of amorphous selenium (a-Se) used for this is deposited using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). CulnSe2 films are prepared through the selenisation process. Another PV material, indium selenide (In2Se3) thin films are also prepared using this process. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2912 |
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Dyuthi-T0903.pdf | (15.36Mb) |
Abstract: | There is a recent trend to describe physical phenomena without the use of infinitesimals or infinites. This has been accomplished replacing differential calculus by the finite difference theory. Discrete function theory was first introduced in l94l. This theory is concerned with a study of functions defined on a discrete set of points in the complex plane. The theory was extensively developed for functions defined on a Gaussian lattice. In 1972 a very suitable lattice H: {Ci qmxO,I qnyo), X0) 0, X3) 0, O < q < l, m, n 5 Z} was found and discrete analytic function theory was developed. Very recently some work has been done in discrete monodiffric function theory for functions defined on H. The theory of pseudoanalytic functions is a generalisation of the theory of analytic functions. When the generator becomes the identity, ie., (l, i) the theory of pseudoanalytic functions reduces to the theory of analytic functions. Theugh the theory of pseudoanalytic functions plays an important role in analysis, no discrete theory is available in literature. This thesis is an attempt in that direction. A discrete pseudoanalytic theory is derived for functions defined on H. |
Description: | Department Of Mathematics and Statistics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/3394 |
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Dyuthi-T1371.pdf | (4.002Mb) |
Abstract: | The thesis begins with a review of basic elements of general theory of relativity (GTR) which forms the basis for the theoretical interpretation of the observations in cosmology. The first chapter also discusses the standard model in cosmology, namely the Friedmann model, its predictions and problems. We have also made a brief discussion on fractals and inflation of the early universe in the first chapter. In the second chapter we discuss the formulation of a new approach to cosmology namely a stochastic approach. In this model, the dynam ics of the early universe is described by a set of non-deterministic, Langevin type equations and we derive the solutions using the Fokker—Planck formalism. Here we demonstrate how the problems with the standard model, can be eliminated by introducing the idea of stochastic fluctuations in the early universe. Many recent observations indicate that the present universe may be approximated by a many component fluid and we assume that only the total energy density is conserved. This, in turn, leads to energy transfer between different components of the cosmic fluid and fluctuations in such energy transfer can certainly induce fluctuations in the mean to factor in the equation of state p = wp, resulting in a fluctuating expansion rate for the universe. The third chapter discusses the stochastic evolution of the cosmological parameters in the early universe, using the new approach. The penultimate chapter is about the refinements to be made in the present model, by means of a new deterministic model The concluding chapter presents a discussion on other problems with the conventional cosmology, like fractal correlation of galactic distribution. The author attempts an explanation for this problem using the stochastic approach. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/3422 |
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Dyuthi-T1391.pdf | (1.429Mb) |
Abstract: | This study is about the analysis of some queueing models related to N-policy.The optimal value the queue size has to attain in order to turn on a single server, assuming that the policy is to turn on a single server when the queue size reaches a certain number, N, and turn him off when the system is empty.The operating policy is the usual N-policy, but with random N and in model 2, a system similar to the one described here.This study analyses “ Tandem queue with two servers”.Here assume that the first server is a specialized one.In a queueing system,under N-policy ,the server will be on vacation until N units accumulate for the first time after becoming idle.A modified version of the N-policy for an M│M│1 queueing system is considered here.The novel feature of this model is that a busy service unit prevents the access of new customers to servers further down the line.It is deals with a queueing model consisting of two servers connected in series with a finite intermediate waiting room of capacity k.Here assume that server I is a specialized server.For this model ,the steady state probability vector and the stability condition are obtained using matrix – geometric method. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/39 |
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Dyuthi-T0001.pdf | (898.9Kb) |
Abstract: | This thesis is devoted to the study of some stochastic models in inventories. An inventory system is a facility at which items of materials are stocked. In order to promote smooth and efficient running of business, and to provide adequate service to the customers, an inventory materials is essential for any enterprise. When uncertainty is present, inventories are used as a protection against risk of stock out. It is advantageous to procure the item before it is needed at a lower marginal cost. Again, by bulk purchasing, the advantage of price discounts can be availed. All these contribute to the formation of inventory. Maintaining inventories is a major expenditure for any organization. For each inventory, the fundamental question is how much new stock should be ordered and when should the orders are replaced. In the present study, considered several models for single and two commodity stochastic inventory problems. The thesis discusses two models. In the first model, examined the case in which the time elapsed between two consecutive demand points are independent and identically distributed with common distribution function F(.) with mean (assumed finite) and in which demand magnitude depends only on the time elapsed since the previous demand epoch. The time between disasters has an exponential distribution with parameter . In Model II, the inter arrival time of disasters have general distribution (F.) with mean ( ) and the quantity destructed depends on the time elapsed between disasters. Demands form compound poison processes with inter arrival times of demands having mean 1/. It deals with linearly correlated bulk demand two Commodity inventory problem, where each arrival demands a random number of items of each commodity C1 and C2, the maximum quantity demanded being a (< S1) and b(<S2) respectively. The particular case of linearly correlated demand is also discussed |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/61 |
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Dyuthi-T0010.pdf | (1.878Mb) |
Abstract: | The thesis deals with analysis of some Stochastic Inventory Models with Pooling/Retrial of Customers.. In the first model we analyze an (s,S) production Inventory system with retrial of customers. Arrival of customers from outside the system form a Poisson process. The inter production times are exponentially distributed with parameter µ. When inventory level reaches zero further arriving demands are sent to the orbit which has capacity M(<∞). Customers, who find the orbit full and inventory level at zero are lost to the system. Demands arising from the orbital customers are exponentially distributed with parameter γ. In the model-II we extend these results to perishable inventory system assuming that the life-time of each item follows exponential with parameter θ. The study deals with an (s,S) production inventory with service times and retrial of unsatisfied customers. Primary demands occur according to a Markovian Arrival Process(MAP). Consider an (s,S)-retrial inventory with service time in which primary demands occur according to a Batch Markovian Arrival Process (BMAP). The inventory is controlled by the (s,S) policy and (s,S) inventory system with service time. Primary demands occur according to Poissson process with parameter λ. The study concentrates two models. In the first model we analyze an (s,S) Inventory system with postponed demands where arrivals of demands form a Poisson process. In the second model, we extend our results to perishable inventory system assuming that the life-time of each item follows exponential distribution with parameter θ. Also it is assumed that when inventory level is zero the arriving demands choose to enter the pool with probability β and with complementary probability (1- β) it is lost for ever. Finally it analyze an (s,S) production inventory system with switching time. A lot of work is reported under the assumption that the switching time is negligible but this is not the case for several real life situation. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/57 |
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Dyuthi-T0009.pdf | (1.614Mb) |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1666 |
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Dyuthi-T0013.pdf | (1.956Mb) |
Abstract: | The thesis entitled Analysis of Some Stochastic Models in Inventories and Queues. This thesis is devoted to the study of some stochastic models in Inventories and Queues which are physically realizable, though complex. It contains a detailed analysis of the basic stochastic processes underlying these models. In this thesis, (s,S) inventory systems with nonidentically distributed interarrival demand times and random lead times, state dependent demands, varying ordering levels and perishable commodities with exponential life times have been studied. The queueing system of the type Ek/Ga,b/l with server vacations, service systems with single and batch services, queueing system with phase type arrival and service processes and finite capacity M/G/l queue when server going for vacation after serving a random number of customers are also analysed. The analogy between the queueing systems and inventory systems could be exploited in solving certain models. In vacation models, one important result is the stochastic decomposition property of the system size or waiting time. One can think of extending this to the transient case. In inventory theory, one can extend the present study to the case of multi-item, multi-echelon problems. The study of perishable inventory problem when the commodities have a general life time distribution would be a quite interesting problem. The analogy between the queueing systems and inventory systems could be exploited in solving certain models. |
Description: | Department of Mathematics and Statistics Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/3244 |
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Dyuthi-T1218.pdf | (4.503Mb) |
Dyuthi-T1218.pdf | (4.503Mb) |
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