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Title: Preparation and Study of Optical Properties of CdS, CdS-TiO2 and CdS-Au Nanocomposites for Photonic Applications
Authors: Mathew, S
Girijavallabhan, C P
Keywords: CdS, TiO2 and Au Nanoparticles
low dimensional semicondutors
synthesis and study of linear optical properties
second harmonic generation
Issue Date: Feb-2015
Publisher: Cochin University Of Science And Technology
Abstract: Nanophotonics can be regarded as a fusion of nanotechnology and photonics and it is an emerging field providing researchers opportunities in fundamental science and new technologies. In recent times many new methodsand techniques have been developed to prepare materials at nanoscale dimensions. Most of these materials exhibit unique and interesting optical properties and behavior. Many of these have been found to be very useful to develop new devices and systems such as tracers in biological systems, optical limiters, light emitters and energy harvesters. This thesis presents a summary of the work done by the author in the field by choosing a few semiconductor systems to prepare nanomaterials and nanocomposites. Results of the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials thus synthesized are also presented in the various chapters of this thesis. CdS is the material chosen here and the methods and the studies of the detailed investigation are presented in this thesis related to the optical properties of CdS nanoparticles and its composites. Preparation and characterization methods and experimental techniques adopted for the investigations were illustrated in chapter 2 of this thesis. Chapter 3 discusses the preparation of CdS, TiO2 and Au nanoparticles. We observed that the fluorescence behaviour of the CdS nanoparticles, prepared by precipitation technique, depends on excitation wavelength. It was found that the peak emission wavelength can be shifted by as much as 147nm by varyingthe excitation wavelengths and the reason for this phenomenon is the selective excitation of the surface states in the nanoparticles. This provided certain amount of tunability for the emission which results from surface states.TiO2 nanoparticle colloids were prepared by hydrothermal method. The optical absorption study showed a blue shift of absorption edge, indicating quantum confinement effect. The large spectral range investigated allows observing simultaneously direct and indirect band gap optical recombination. The emission studies carried out show four peaks, which are found to be generated from excitonic as well as surface state transitions. It was found that the emission wavelengths of these colloidal nanoparticles and annealed nanoparticles showed two category of surface state emission in addition to the excitonic emission. Au nanoparticles prepared by Turkevich method showed nanoparticles of size below 5nm using plasmonic absorption calculation. It was also found that there was almost no variation in size as the concentration of precursor was changed from 0.2mM to 0.4mM.We have observed SHG from CdS nanostructured thin film prepared onglass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. The results point out that studied sample has in-plane isotropy. The relative values of tensor components of the second-order susceptibility were determined to be 1, zzz 0.14, xxz and 0.07. zxx These values suggest that the nanocrystals are oriented along the normal direction. However, the origin of such orientation remains unknown at present. Thus CdS is a promising nonlinear optical material for photonic applications, particularly for integrated photonic devices. CdS Au nanocomposite particles were prepared by mixing CdS nanoparticles with Au colloidal nanoparticles. Optical absorption study of these nanoparticles in PVA solution suggests that absorption tail was red shifted compared to CdS nanoparticles. TEM and EDS analysis suggested that the amount of Au nanoparticles present on CdS nanoparticles is very small. Fluorescence emission is unaffected indicating the presence of low level of Au nanoparticles. CdS:Au PVA and CdS PVA nanocomposite films were fabricated and optically characterized. The results showed a red-shift for CdS:Au PVA film for absorption tail compared to CdS PVA film. Nonlinear optical analysis showed a huge nonlinear optical absorption for CdS:Au PVA nanocomposite and CdS:PVA films. Also an enhancement in nonlinear optical absorption is found for CdS:Au PVA thin film compared to the CdS PVA thin film. This enhancement is due to the combined effect of plasmonic as well as excitonic contribution at high input intensity. Samples of CdS doped with TiO2 were also prepared and the linear optical absorption spectra of these nanocompositeparticles clearly indicated the influence of TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM and EDS studies have confirmed the presence of TiO2 on CdS nanoparticles. Fluorescence studies showed that there is an increase in emission peak around 532nm for CdS nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical analysis of CdS:TiO2 PVA nanocomposite films indicated a large nonlinear optical absorption compared to that of CdS:PVA nanocomposite film. The values of nonlinear optical absorption suggests that these nanocomposite particles can be employed for optical limiting applications. CdSe-CdS and CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs with varying shell size were characterized using UV–VIS spectroscopy. Optical absorption and TEM analysis of these QDs suggested a particle size around 5 nm. It is clearly shown that the surface coating influences the optical properties of QDs in terms of their size. Fluorescence studies reveal the presence of trap states in CdSe-CdS and CdSe- ZnS QDs. Trap states showed an increase as a shell for CdS is introduced and increasing the shell size of CdS beyond a certain value leads to a decrease in the trap state emission. There is no sizeable nonlinear optical absorption observed. In the case of CdSe- ZnS QDs, the trap state emission gets enhanced with the increase in ZnS shell thickness. The enhancement of emission from trap states transition due to the increase in thickness of ZnS shell gives a clear indication of distortion occurring in the spherical symmetry of CdSe quantum dots. Consequently the nonlinear optical absorption of CdSe-ZnS QDs gets increased and the optical limiting threshold is decreased as the shell thickness is increased in respect of CdSe QDs. In comparison with CdSe-CdS QDs, CdSe-ZnS QDs possess much better optical properties and thereby CdSe-ZnS is a strong candidate for nonlinear as well as linear optical applications.
Description: International School of Photonics
URI: http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/5028
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Technology

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