Studies on nitrifying microorganisms in Cochin Estuary and adjacent coastal waters

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Studies on nitrifying microorganisms in Cochin Estuary and adjacent coastal waters

Show simple item record Vipindas, P V Shanta, Achuthankutty 2015-08-03T04:41:07Z 2015-08-03T04:41:07Z 2015-03
dc.description.abstract This thesis entitled “Studies on Nitrifying Microorganisms in Cochin Estuary and Adjacent Coastal Waters” reports for the first time the spatial andtemporal variations in the abundance and activity of nitrifiers (Ammonia oxidizingbacteria-AOB; Nitrite oxidizing bacteria- NOB and Ammonia oxidizing archaea-AOA) from the Cochin Estuary (CE), a monsoon driven, nutrient rich tropicalestuary along the southwest coast of India. To fulfil the above objectives, field observations were carried out for aperiod of one year (2011) in the CE. Surface (1 m below surface) and near-bottomwater samples were collected from four locations (stations 1 to 3 in estuary and 4 in coastal region), covering pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Station 1 is a low saline station (salinity range 0-10) with high freshwater influx While stations 2 and 3 are intermediately saline stations (salinity ranges 10-25). Station 4 is located ~20 km away from station 3 with least influence of fresh water and is considered as high saline (salinity range 25- 35) station. Ambient physicochemical parameters like temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), Ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate of surface and bottom waters were measured using standard techniques. Abundance of Eubacteria, total Archaea and ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB) were quantified using Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) with oligonucleotide probes labeled withCy3. Community structure of AOB and AOA was studied using PCR Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. PCR products were cloned and sequenced to determine approximate phylogenetic affiliations. Nitrification rate in the water samples were analyzed using chemical NaClO3 (inhibitor of nitrite oxidation), and ATU (inhibitor of ammonium oxidation). Contribution of AOA and AOB in ammonia oxidation process was measured based on the recovered ammonia oxidation rate. The contribution of AOB and AOA were analyzed after inhibiting the activities of AOB and AOA separately using specific protein inhibitors. To understand the factors influencing or controlling nitrification, various statistical tools were used viz. Karl Pearson’s correlation (to find out the relationship between environmental parameters, bacterial abundance and activity), three-way ANOVA (to find out the significant variation between observations), Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) (for the discrimination of stations based on observations), Multivariate statistics, Principal components analysis (PCA) and Step up multiple regression model (SMRM) (First order interaction effects were applied to determine the significantly contributing biological and environmental parameters to the numerical abundance of nitrifiers). In the CE, nitrification is modulated by the complex interplay between different nitrifiers and environmental variables which in turn is dictated by various hydrodynamic characteristics like fresh water discharge and seawater influx brought in by river water discharge and flushing. AOB in the CE are more adapted to varying environmental conditions compared to AOA though the diversity of AOA is higher than AOB. The abundance and seasonality of AOB and NOB is influenced by the concentration of ammonia in the water column. AOB are the major players in modulating ammonia oxidation process in the water column of CE. The distribution pattern and seasonality of AOB and NOB in the CE suggest that these organisms coexist, and are responsible for modulating the entire nitrification process in the estuary. This process is fuelled by the cross feeding among different nitrifiers, which in turn is dictated by nutrient levels especially ammonia. Though nitrification modulates the increasing anthropogenic ammonia concentration the anthropogenic inputs have to be controlled to prevent eutrophication and associated environmental changes. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Cochin University of Science and Technology en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Cochin University of Science And Technology en_US
dc.subject Nitrifying microorganisms en_US
dc.subject Cochin Estuary en_US
dc.subject Nitrogen cycle en_US
dc.subject Factors affecting nitrification en_US
dc.title Studies on nitrifying microorganisms in Cochin Estuary and adjacent coastal waters en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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