Characterization and Pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus from Marine environments

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Characterization and Pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus from Marine environments

Show simple item record Alphonsa Vijaya, Joseph Sarita G, Bhat 2015-07-16T04:35:12Z 2015-07-16T04:35:12Z 2013-10
dc.description.abstract The genus Vibrioof the family Vibrionaceae are Gram negative, oxidasepositive, rod- or curved- rodshaped facultative anaerobes, widespread in marine and estuarine environments. Vibrio species are opportunistic human pathogens responsible for diarrhoeal disease, gastroenteritis, septicaemia and wound infections and are also pathogens of aquatic organisms, causing infections to crustaceans, bivalves and fishes. In the present study, marine environmental samples like seafood and water and sediment samples from aquafarms and mangroves were screened for the presence of Vibrio species. Of the134 isolates obtained from the various samples, 45 were segregated to the genus Vibrio on the basis of phenotypic Gram staining, oxidase test, MoF test and salinity tolerance. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis was utilized for species level identification of the isolates and the strains were identified as V. cholerae(N=21), V. vulnificus(N=18), V. parahaemolyticus(N=3), V. alginolyticus (N=2) and V. azureus (N=1). The genetic relatedness and variations among the 45 Vibrio isolates were elucidated based on 16S rDNA sequences. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates was based on their response to 12 biochemical tests namely Voges-Proskauers’s (VP test), arginine dihydrolase , tolerance to 3% NaCl test, ONPG test that detects β-galactosidase activity, and tests for utilization of citrate, ornithine, mannitol, arabinose, sucrose, glucose, salicin and cellobiose. The isolates exhibited diverse biochemical patterns, some specific for the species and others indicative of their environmental source.Antibiogram for the isolates was determined subsequent to testing their susceptibility to 12 antibiotics by the disc diffusion method. Varying degrees of resistance to gentamycin (2.22%), ampicillin(62.22%), nalidixic acid (4.44%), vancomycin (86.66), cefixime (17.77%), rifampicin (20%), tetracycline (42.22%) and chloramphenicol (2.22%) was exhibited. All the isolates were susceptible to streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim and azithromycin. Isolates from all the three marine environments exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, with high MAR index value. The molecular typing methods such as ERIC PCR and BOX PCR revealed intraspecies relatedness and genetic heterogeneity within the environmental isolatesof V. cholerae and V. vulnificus. The 21 strains of V. choleraewere serogroupedas non O1/ non O139 by screening for the presence O1rfb and O139 rfb marker genes by PCR. The virulence/virulence associated genes namely ctxA, ctxB, ace, VPI, hlyA, ompU, rtxA, toxR, zot, nagst, tcpA, nin and nanwere screened in V. cholerae and V. vulnificusstrains.The V. vulnificusstrains were also screened for three species specific genes viz., cps, vvhand viu. In V. cholerae strains, the virulence associated genes like VPI, hlyA, rtxA, ompU and toxR were confirmed by PCR. All the isolates, except for strain BTOS6, harbored at least one or a combination of the tested genes and V. choleraestrain BTPR5 isolated from prawn hosted the highest number of virulence associated genes. Among the V. vulnificusstrains, only 3 virulence genes, VPI, toxR and cps, were confirmed out of the 16 tested and only 7 of the isolates had these genes in one or more combinations. Strain BTPS6 from aquafarm and strain BTVE4 from mangrove samples yielded positive amplification for the three genes. The toxRgene from 9 strains of V. choleraeand 3 strains of V. vulnificus were cloned and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide and the amino acid sequences. Multiple sequence alignment of the nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences of the environmental strains of V. choleraerevealed that the toxRgene in the environmental strains are 100% homologous to themselves and to the V. choleraetoxR gene sequence available in the Genbank database. The 3 strains of V. vulnificus displayed high nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity among themselves and to the sequences of V. cholerae and V. harveyi obtained from the GenBank database, but exhibited only 72% homology to the sequences of its close relative V. vulnificus. Structure prediction of the ToxR protein of Vibrio cholerae strain BTMA5 was by PHYRE2 software. The deduced amino acid sequence showed maximum resemblance with the structure of DNA-binding domain of response regulator2 from Escherichia coli k-12 Template based homology modelling in PHYRE2 successfully modelled the predicted protein and its secondary structure based on protein data bank (PDB) template c3zq7A. The pathogenicity studies were performed using the nematode Caenorhabditiselegansas a model system. The assessment of pathogenicity of environmental strain of V. choleraewas conducted with E. coli strain OP50 as the food source in control plates, environmental V. cholerae strain BTOS6, negative for all tested virulence genes, to check for the suitability of Vibrio sp. as a food source for the nematode;V. cholerae Co 366 ElTor, a clinical pathogenic strain and V. cholerae strain BTPR5 from seafood (Prawn) and positive for the tested virulence genes like VPI, hlyA, ompU,rtxA and toxR. It was found that V. cholerae strain BTOS6 could serve as a food source in place of E. coli strain OP50 but behavioral aberrations like sluggish movement and lawn avoidance and morphological abnormalities like pharyngeal and intestinal distensions and bagging were exhibited by the worms fed on V. cholerae Co 366 ElTor strain and environmental BTPR5 indicating their pathogenicity to the nematode. Assessment of pathogenicity of the environmental strains of V. vulnificus was performed with V. vulnificus strain BTPS6 which tested positive for 3 virulence genes, namely, cps, toxRand VPI, and V. vulnificus strain BTMM7 that did not possess any of the tested virulence genes. A reduction was observed in the life span of worms fed on environmental strain of V. vulnificusBTMM7 rather than on the ordinary laboratory food source, E. coli OP50. Behavioral abnormalities like sluggish movement, lawn avoidance and bagging were also observed in the worms fed with strain BTPS6, but the pharynx and the intestine were intact. The presence of multi drug resistant environmental Vibrio strainsthat constitute a major reservoir of diverse virulence genes are to be dealt with caution as they play a decisive role in pathogenicity and horizontal gene transfer in the marine environments. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Cochin University of Science & Technology en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Cochin University of Science And Technology en_US
dc.subject Vibrionaceae en_US
dc.subject Vibrios in seafood en_US
dc.subject Vibrio cholerae en_US
dc.subject Vibrio vulnificus en_US
dc.title Characterization and Pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus from Marine environments en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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