Application of Fermentation Techniques in the Utilization of Prawn Shell Waste

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Application of Fermentation Techniques in the Utilization of Prawn Shell Waste

Show simple item record Sini, T K Dr. Mathew, P T 2011-12-14T08:52:52Z 2011-12-14T08:52:52Z 2007-12
dc.description.abstract The present study aimed at the utlisation of microbial organisms for the production of good quality chitin and chitosan. The three strains used for the study were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacililus brevis and Bacillus subtilis. These strains were selected on the basis of their acid producing ability to reduce the pH of the fermenting substrates to prevent spoilage and thus caused demineralisation of the shell. Besides, the proteolytic enzymes in these strains acted on proteinaceous covering of shrimp and thus caused deprotenisation of shrimp shell waste. Thus the two processes involved in chitin production can be affected to certain extent using bacterial fermentation of shrimp shell.Optimization parameters like fermentation period, quantity of inoculum, type of sugar, concentration of sugar etc. for fermentation with three different strains were studied. For these, parameters like pH, Total titrable acidity (TTA), changes in sugar concentration, changes in microbial count, sensory changes etc. were studied.Fermentation study with Lactobacillus plantarum was continued with 20% w/v jaggery broth for 15 days. The inoculum prepared yislded a cell concentration of approximately 108 CFU/ml. In the present study, lactic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid were used for initial pH adjustment because; without adjusting the initial pH, it took more than 5 hours for the lactic acid bacteria to convert glucose to lactic acid and during this delay spoilage occurred due to putrefying enzymes active at neutral or higher pH. During the fermentation study, pH first decreased in correspondence with increase in TTA values. This showed a clear indication of acid production by the strain. This trend continued till their proteolytic activity showed an increasing trend. When the available sugar source started depleting, proteolytic activity also decreased and pH increased. This was clearly reflected in the sensory evaluation results. Lactic acid treated samples showed greater extent of demineralization and deprotenisation at the end of fermentation study than hydrochloric acid treated samples. It can be due to the effect of strong hydrochloric acid on the initial microbial count, which directly affects the fermentation process. At the end of fermentation, about 76.5% of ash was removed in lactic acid treated samples and 71.8% in hydrochloric acid treated samples; 72.8% of proteins in lactic acid treated samples and 70.6% in hydrochloric acid treated samples.The residual protein and ash in the fermented residue were reduced to permissible limit by treatment with 0.8N HCI and 1M NaOH. Characteristics of chitin like chitin content, ash content, protein content, % of N- acetylation etc. were studied. Quality characteristics like viscosity, degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan prepared were also compared. The chitosan samples prepared from lactic acid treated showed high viscosity than HCI treated samples. But degree of deacetylation is more in HCI treated samples than lactic acid treated ones. Characteristics of protein liquor obtained like its biogenic composition, amino acid composition, total volatile base nitrogen, alpha amino nitrogen etc. also were studied to find out its suitability as animal feed supplement.Optimization of fermentation parameters for Lactobacillus brevis fermentation study was also conducted and parameters were standardized. Then detailed fermentation study was done in 20%wlv jaggery broth for 17 days. Also the effect of two different acid treatments (mild HCI and lactic acid) used for initial pH adjustment on chitin production were also studied. In this study also trend of changes in pH. changes in sugar concentration ,microbial count changes were similar to Lactobacillus plantarum studies. At the end of fermentation, residual protein in the samples were only 32.48% in HCI treated samples and 31.85% in lactic acid treated samples. The residual ash content was about 33.68% in HCI treated ones and 32.52% in lactic acid treated ones. The fermented residue was converted to chitin with good characteristics by treatment with 1.2MNaOH and 1NHCI.Characteristics of chitin samples prepared were studied and extent of Nacetylation was about 84% in HCI treated chitin and 85%in lactic acid treated ones assessed from FTIR spectrum. Chitosan was prepared from these samples by usual chemical method and its extent of solubility, degree of deacetylation, viscosity and molecular weight etc were studied. The values of viscosity and molecular weight of the samples prepared were comparatively less than the chitosan prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation. Characteristics of protein liquor obtained were analyzed to determine its quality and is suitability as animal feed supplement.Another strain used for the study was Bacillus subtilis and fermentation was carried out in 20%w/v jaggery broth for 15 days. It was found that Bacillus subtilis was more efficient than other Lactobacillus species for deprotenisation and demineralization. This was mainly due to the difference in the proteolytic nature of the strains. About 84% of protein and 72% of ash were removed at the end of fermentation. Considering the statistical significance (P<O.05) in the extent of demineralization and deproteinisation, we have taken 0.8N HCI for the demineralization study and 0.6M NaOH for deprotenisation study. Properties of chitin and chitosan prepared were analyzed and studied. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Central Institute of Fisheries Technology en_US
dc.subject Seafood en_US
dc.subject Fermentation en_US
dc.subject Biogenic amines en_US
dc.subject Silage en_US
dc.subject Prawn Shell Waste en_US
dc.title Application of Fermentation Techniques in the Utilization of Prawn Shell Waste en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.contributor.faculty Marine Sciences en_US

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