Abstract: | This work mainly concentrate to understand the optical and electrical properties of amorphous zinc tin oxide and amorphous zinc indium tin oxide thin films for TFT applications. Amorphous materials are promising in achieving better device performance on temperature sensitive substrates compared to polycrystalline materials. Most of these amorphous oxides are multicomponent and as such there exists the need for an optimized chemical composition. For this we have to make individual targets with required chemical composition to use it in conventional thin film deposition techniques like PLD and sputtering. Instead, if we use separate targets for each of the cationic element and if separately control the power during the simultaneous sputtering process, then we can change the chemical composition by simply adjusting the sputtering power. This is what is done in co-sputtering technique. Eventhough there had some reports about thin film deposition using this technique, there was no reports about the use of this technique in TFT fabrication until very recent time. Hence in this work, co-sputtering has performed as a major technique for thin film deposition and TFT fabrication. PLD were also performed as it is a relatively new technique and allows the use high oxygen pressure during deposition. This helps to control the carrier density in the channel and also favours the smooth film surface. Both these properties are crucial in TFT.Zinc tin oxide material is interesting in the sense that it does not contain costly indium. Eventhough some works were already reported in ZTO based TFTs, there was no systematic study about ZTO thin film's various optoelectronic properties from a TFT manufacturing perspective. Attempts have made to analyse the ZTO films prepared by PLD and co-sputtering. As more type of cations present in the film, chances are high to form an amorphous phase. Zinc indium tin oxide is studied as a multicomponent oxide material suitable for TFT fabrication. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2519 |
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Dyuthi-T0678.pdf | (10.18Mb) |
Abstract: | In the present work, we describe our efforts to develop device quality CuInSe2, films through low cost, simple and eco-friendly hybrid techniques. The most important point to be highlighted here is that the method fully avoids the use of poisonous gases such as H2Se/Se vapour. Instead, selenisation is achieved through solid state reaction between amorphous selenium and polycrystalline metal layers resulting in both binary and ternary selenides. Thin films of amorphous selenium (a-Se) used for this is deposited using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). CulnSe2 films are prepared through the selenisation process. Another PV material, indium selenide (In2Se3) thin films are also prepared using this process. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2912 |
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Dyuthi-T0903.pdf | (15.36Mb) |
Abstract: | Hindi |
Description: | Department of Hindi,Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/4772 |
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Dyuthi-T1869.pdf | (3.747Mb) |
Abstract: | HINDI |
Description: | Department of Hindi Cochin University of Science & Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/4752 |
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Dyuthi-T1849.pdf | (13.58Mb) |
Description: | Faculty of Engineering. Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2358 |
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Dyuthi-T0630.pdf | (3.053Mb) |
Abstract: | This is a sequel to our earlier work on the modulated logistic map. Here, we first show that the map comes under the universality class of Feigenbaum. We then give evidence for the fact that our model can generate strange attractors in the unit square for an uncountable number of parameter values in the range μ∞<μ<1. Numerical plots of the attractor for several values of μ are given and the self-similar structure is explicity shown in one case. The fractal and information dimensions of the attractors for many values of μ are shown to be greater than one and the variation in their structure is analysed using the two Lyapunov exponents of the system. Our results suggest that the map can be considered as an analogue of the logistic map in two dimensions and may be useful in describing certain higher dimensional chaotic phenomena. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2567 |
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Dyuthi-P0126.pdf | (484.3Kb) |
Abstract: | A dual-port dual-polarized compact microstrip antenna for avoiding cross coupling between the two frequency bands is proposed and analyzed. This antenna offers channel isolation better than 25 dB, and is more compact compared to a conventional rectangular patch. Analytical equations for calculating the resonant frequencies at both ports are also presented. The theoretical calculations are verified using experimental results |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1393 |
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Analysis and de ... act microstrip antenna.PDF | (1.268Mb) |
Abstract: | Most adaptive linearization circuits for the nonlinear amplifier have a feedback loop that returns the output signal oj'tne eunplifier to the lineurizer. The loop delay of the linearizer most be controlled precisely so that the convergence of the linearizer should be assured lot this Letter a delay control circuit is presented. It is a delay lock loop (ULL) with it modified early-lute gate and can he easily applied to a DSP implementation. The proposed DLL circuit is applied to an adaptive linearizer with the use of a polynomial predistorter, and the simulalion for a 16-QAM signal is performed. The simulation results show that the proposed DLL eliminates the delay between the reference input signal and the delayed feedback signal of the linearizing circuit perfectly, so that the predistorter polynomial coefficients converge into the optimum value and a high degree of linearization is achieved |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1386 |
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Analysis and de ... h loop delay estimator.PDF | (549.4Kb) |
Abstract: | To ensure quality of machined products at minimum machining costs and maximum machining effectiveness, it is very important to select optimum parameters when metal cutting machine tools are employed. Traditionally, the experience of the operator plays a major role in the selection of optimum metal cutting conditions. However, attaining optimum values each time by even a skilled operator is difficult. The non-linear nature of the machining process has compelled engineers to search for more effective methods to attain optimization. The design objective preceding most engineering design activities is simply to minimize the cost of production or to maximize the production efficiency. The main aim of research work reported here is to build robust optimization algorithms by exploiting ideas that nature has to offer from its backyard and using it to solve real world optimization problems in manufacturing processes.In this thesis, after conducting an exhaustive literature review, several optimization techniques used in various manufacturing processes have been identified. The selection of optimal cutting parameters, like depth of cut, feed and speed is a very important issue for every machining process. Experiments have been designed using Taguchi technique and dry turning of SS420 has been performed on Kirlosker turn master 35 lathe. Analysis using S/N and ANOVA were performed to find the optimum level and percentage of contribution of each parameter. By using S/N analysis the optimum machining parameters from the experimentation is obtained.Optimization algorithms begin with one or more design solutions supplied by the user and then iteratively check new design solutions, relative search spaces in order to achieve the true optimum solution. A mathematical model has been developed using response surface analysis for surface roughness and the model was validated using published results from literature.Methodologies in optimization such as Simulated annealing (SA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Conventional Genetic Algorithm (CGA) and Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) are applied to optimize machining parameters while dry turning of SS420 material. All the above algorithms were tested for their efficiency, robustness and accuracy and observe how they often outperform conventional optimization method applied to difficult real world problems. The SA, PSO, CGA and IGA codes were developed using MATLAB. For each evolutionary algorithmic method, optimum cutting conditions are provided to achieve better surface finish.The computational results using SA clearly demonstrated that the proposed solution procedure is quite capable in solving such complicated problems effectively and efficiently. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a relatively recent heuristic search method whose mechanics are inspired by the swarming or collaborative behavior of biological populations. From the results it has been observed that PSO provides better results and also more computationally efficient.Based on the results obtained using CGA and IGA for the optimization of machining process, the proposed IGA provides better results than the conventional GA. The improved genetic algorithm incorporating a stochastic crossover technique and an artificial initial population scheme is developed to provide a faster search mechanism. Finally, a comparison among these algorithms were made for the specific example of dry turning of SS 420 material and arriving at optimum machining parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut and tool nose radius for minimum surface roughness as the criterion. To summarize, the research work fills in conspicuous gaps between research prototypes and industry requirements, by simulating evolutionary procedures seen in nature that optimize its own systems. |
Description: | Division of Mechanical Engineering,Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2768 |
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Dyuthi-T0791.pdf | (1.548Mb) |
Abstract: | A novel optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) based on the Mach-Zelauler interferometer (MZI) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed for the first tittle to the authors ' knowledge. In the structure, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer acts as an optical switch. The principle of the OADM is analyzed in this paper. The OADM can add/drop one of the multi-input channels or pass the channel directly by adjusting the difference of the two arms of the interferometer. The channel isolation is more than 20 dB |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1427 |
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Analysis and te ... ehnder interferometer.PDF | (255.6Kb) |
Abstract: | There is a recent trend to describe physical phenomena without the use of infinitesimals or infinites. This has been accomplished replacing differential calculus by the finite difference theory. Discrete function theory was first introduced in l94l. This theory is concerned with a study of functions defined on a discrete set of points in the complex plane. The theory was extensively developed for functions defined on a Gaussian lattice. In 1972 a very suitable lattice H: {Ci qmxO,I qnyo), X0) 0, X3) 0, O < q < l, m, n 5 Z} was found and discrete analytic function theory was developed. Very recently some work has been done in discrete monodiffric function theory for functions defined on H. The theory of pseudoanalytic functions is a generalisation of the theory of analytic functions. When the generator becomes the identity, ie., (l, i) the theory of pseudoanalytic functions reduces to the theory of analytic functions. Theugh the theory of pseudoanalytic functions plays an important role in analysis, no discrete theory is available in literature. This thesis is an attempt in that direction. A discrete pseudoanalytic theory is derived for functions defined on H. |
Description: | Department Of Mathematics and Statistics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/3394 |
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Dyuthi-T1371.pdf | (4.002Mb) |
Abstract: | Poor cold flow properties of vegetable oils are a major problem preventing the usage of many abundantly available vegetable oils as base stocks for industrial lubricants. The major objective of this research is to improve the cold flow properties of vegetable oils by various techniques like additive addition and different chemical modification processes. Conventional procedure for determining pour point is ASTM D97 method. ASTM D97 method is time consuming and reproducibility of pour point temperatures is poor between laboratories. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a fast, accurate and reproducible method to analyze the thermal activities during cooling/heating of oil. In this work coconut oil has been chosen as representative vegetable oil for the analysis and improvement cold flow properties since it is abundantly available in the tropics and has a very high pour point of 24 °C. DSC is used for the analysis of unmodified and modified vegetable oil. The modified oils (with acceptable pour points) were then subjected to different tests for the valuation of important lubricant properties such as viscometric, tribological (friction and wear properties), oxidative and corrosion properties.A commercial polymethacrylate based PPD was added in different percentages and the pour points were determined in each case. Styrenated phenol(SP) was added in different concentration to coconut oil and each solution was subjected to ASTM D97 test and analysis by DSC. Refined coconut oil and other oils like castor oil, sunflower oil and keranja oil were mixed in different proportions and interesterification procedure was carried out. Interesterification of coconut oil with other vegetable oils was not found to be effective in lowering the pour point of coconut oil as the reduction attained was only to the extent of 2 to 3 °C.Chemical modification by acid catalysed condensation reaction with coconut oil castor oil mixture resulted in significant reduction of pour point (from 24 ºC to -3 ºC). Instead of using triacylglycerols, when their fatty acid derivatives (lauric acid- the major fatty acid content of coconut oil and oleic acid- the major fatty acid constituents of monoand poly- unsaturated vegetable oils like olive oil, sunflower oil etc.) were used for the synthesis , the pour point could be brought down to -42 ºC. FTIR and NMR spectroscopy confirmed the ester structure of the product which is fundamental to the biodegradability of vegetable oils. The tribological performance of the synthesised product with a suitable AW/EP additive was comparable to the commercial SAE20W30 oil. The viscometric properties (viscosity and viscosity index) were also (with out additives) comparable to commercial lubricants. The TGA experiment confirmed the better oxidative performance of the product compared to vegetable oils. The sample passed corrosion test as per ASTM D130 method. |
Description: | School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/purl/1924 |
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Dyuthi-T0375.pdf | (1.974Mb) |
Abstract: | A new compact microstrip antenna element is analyzed. The analysis can accurately predict the resonant frequency, input impedance, and radiation patterns. The predicted results are compared with experimental results and excellent agreement is observed . These antenna elements are more suitable in applications where limited antenna real estate is available |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/jspui/handle/dyuthi/1568 |
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Analysis of a New Compact Microstrip Antenna.PDF | (3.188Mb) |
Abstract: | A new compact micro strip antenna element is analyzed. The analysis can accurately predict the resonant frequency, input impedance, and radiation patterns. The predicted results are compared with experimental results and excellent agreement is observed . These antenna elements are more suitable in applications where limited antenna real estate is available |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1362 |
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Analysis of a New Compact Microstrip Antenna.PDF | (3.188Mb) |
Abstract: | The closed form expression for the radiated power of a half-wave microstrip patch is modified to calculate the impedance bandwidth of a printed dipole. Analyses of cavity backed flared and end-loaded printed dipoles are presented |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/jspui/handle/dyuthi/1578 |
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Analysis of cavity backed printed dipoles.PDF | (989.1Kb) |
Abstract: | The thesis begins with a review of basic elements of general theory of relativity (GTR) which forms the basis for the theoretical interpretation of the observations in cosmology. The first chapter also discusses the standard model in cosmology, namely the Friedmann model, its predictions and problems. We have also made a brief discussion on fractals and inflation of the early universe in the first chapter. In the second chapter we discuss the formulation of a new approach to cosmology namely a stochastic approach. In this model, the dynam ics of the early universe is described by a set of non-deterministic, Langevin type equations and we derive the solutions using the Fokker—Planck formalism. Here we demonstrate how the problems with the standard model, can be eliminated by introducing the idea of stochastic fluctuations in the early universe. Many recent observations indicate that the present universe may be approximated by a many component fluid and we assume that only the total energy density is conserved. This, in turn, leads to energy transfer between different components of the cosmic fluid and fluctuations in such energy transfer can certainly induce fluctuations in the mean to factor in the equation of state p = wp, resulting in a fluctuating expansion rate for the universe. The third chapter discusses the stochastic evolution of the cosmological parameters in the early universe, using the new approach. The penultimate chapter is about the refinements to be made in the present model, by means of a new deterministic model The concluding chapter presents a discussion on other problems with the conventional cosmology, like fractal correlation of galactic distribution. The author attempts an explanation for this problem using the stochastic approach. |
Description: | Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/3422 |
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Dyuthi-T1391.pdf | (1.429Mb) |
Abstract: | This thesis discusses the factors which influence the productive and financial performance of the spinning mills in Kerala. The study will also help to assess the effect of ongoing reforms in the industrial sector in India. The main objective of the study is to identify and analyse the factors affecting the efficiency of the spinning mills. The unique feature of the study is that it compares the performance of private sector in relation to its public counterparts and also performance of small sector in relation to medium sector. The study is carried out with reference to the relative performance of differmills in Kerala and to identify the sources of differences in performance. The study covers twenty one spinning mills in Kerala, of which ten are in the private sector, four under NTC, three under co—operat;ive sector and four under KSTC.Measured in terms of firm-size fifteen belong to small size with a spindleage of less than 26,000 and six are in the medium size with a spindleage of 26,000 to 50,0OO.1 The period of study is 1982-83 to 1991-92. Hence, only those companies, of which data of 10 years upto 1991-92 wereavailable, are taken for study. |
Description: | School of Management Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/3217 |
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Dyuthi-T1191.pdf | (3.085Mb) |
Abstract: | This study is about the analysis of some queueing models related to N-policy.The optimal value the queue size has to attain in order to turn on a single server, assuming that the policy is to turn on a single server when the queue size reaches a certain number, N, and turn him off when the system is empty.The operating policy is the usual N-policy, but with random N and in model 2, a system similar to the one described here.This study analyses “ Tandem queue with two servers”.Here assume that the first server is a specialized one.In a queueing system,under N-policy ,the server will be on vacation until N units accumulate for the first time after becoming idle.A modified version of the N-policy for an M│M│1 queueing system is considered here.The novel feature of this model is that a busy service unit prevents the access of new customers to servers further down the line.It is deals with a queueing model consisting of two servers connected in series with a finite intermediate waiting room of capacity k.Here assume that server I is a specialized server.For this model ,the steady state probability vector and the stability condition are obtained using matrix – geometric method. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/39 |
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Dyuthi-T0001.pdf | (898.9Kb) |
Abstract: | This thesis is devoted to the study of some stochastic models in inventories. An inventory system is a facility at which items of materials are stocked. In order to promote smooth and efficient running of business, and to provide adequate service to the customers, an inventory materials is essential for any enterprise. When uncertainty is present, inventories are used as a protection against risk of stock out. It is advantageous to procure the item before it is needed at a lower marginal cost. Again, by bulk purchasing, the advantage of price discounts can be availed. All these contribute to the formation of inventory. Maintaining inventories is a major expenditure for any organization. For each inventory, the fundamental question is how much new stock should be ordered and when should the orders are replaced. In the present study, considered several models for single and two commodity stochastic inventory problems. The thesis discusses two models. In the first model, examined the case in which the time elapsed between two consecutive demand points are independent and identically distributed with common distribution function F(.) with mean (assumed finite) and in which demand magnitude depends only on the time elapsed since the previous demand epoch. The time between disasters has an exponential distribution with parameter . In Model II, the inter arrival time of disasters have general distribution (F.) with mean ( ) and the quantity destructed depends on the time elapsed between disasters. Demands form compound poison processes with inter arrival times of demands having mean 1/. It deals with linearly correlated bulk demand two Commodity inventory problem, where each arrival demands a random number of items of each commodity C1 and C2, the maximum quantity demanded being a (< S1) and b(<S2) respectively. The particular case of linearly correlated demand is also discussed |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/61 |
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Dyuthi-T0010.pdf | (1.878Mb) |
Abstract: | The thesis deals with analysis of some Stochastic Inventory Models with Pooling/Retrial of Customers.. In the first model we analyze an (s,S) production Inventory system with retrial of customers. Arrival of customers from outside the system form a Poisson process. The inter production times are exponentially distributed with parameter µ. When inventory level reaches zero further arriving demands are sent to the orbit which has capacity M(<∞). Customers, who find the orbit full and inventory level at zero are lost to the system. Demands arising from the orbital customers are exponentially distributed with parameter γ. In the model-II we extend these results to perishable inventory system assuming that the life-time of each item follows exponential with parameter θ. The study deals with an (s,S) production inventory with service times and retrial of unsatisfied customers. Primary demands occur according to a Markovian Arrival Process(MAP). Consider an (s,S)-retrial inventory with service time in which primary demands occur according to a Batch Markovian Arrival Process (BMAP). The inventory is controlled by the (s,S) policy and (s,S) inventory system with service time. Primary demands occur according to Poissson process with parameter λ. The study concentrates two models. In the first model we analyze an (s,S) Inventory system with postponed demands where arrivals of demands form a Poisson process. In the second model, we extend our results to perishable inventory system assuming that the life-time of each item follows exponential distribution with parameter θ. Also it is assumed that when inventory level is zero the arriving demands choose to enter the pool with probability β and with complementary probability (1- β) it is lost for ever. Finally it analyze an (s,S) production inventory system with switching time. A lot of work is reported under the assumption that the switching time is negligible but this is not the case for several real life situation. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/57 |
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Dyuthi-T0009.pdf | (1.614Mb) |
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