Abstract: | The spectral and nonlinear optical properties of ZnO based nanocomposites prepared by colloidal chemical synthesis are investigated. Very strong UV emissions are observed from ZnO–Ag, ZnO– Cu and ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposites. The strongest visible emission of a typical ZnO–Cu nanocomposite is over ten times stronger than that of pure Cu due to transition from deep donor level to the copper induced level. The optical band gap of ZnO–CdS and ZnO–TiO2 nanocomposites is tunable and emission peaks changes almost in proportion to changes in band gap. Nonlinear optical response of these nanocomposites is studied using nanosecond laser pulses from a tunable laser in the wavelength range of 450–650 nm at resonance and off-resonance wavelengths. The nonlinear response is wavelength dependent and switching from RSA to SA has been observed at resonant wavelengths. Such a change-over is related to the interplay of plasmon/exciton band bleach and optical limiting mechanisms. The observed nonlinear absorption is explained through two photon absorption followed by weak free carrier absoption, interband absorption and nonlinear scattering mechanisms. The nonlinearity of the silica colloid is low and its nonlinear response can be improved by making composites with ZnO and ZnO–TiO2. The increase of the third-order nonlinearity in the composites can be attributed to the enhancement of exciton oscillator strength. This study is important in identifying the spectral range and the composition over which the nonlinear material acts as an RSA based optical limiter. These nanocomposites can be used as optical limiters and are potential materials for the light emission and for the development of nonlinear optical devices with a relatively small limiting threshold. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1818 |
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Spectral and Nonlinear Optical.pdf | (6.045Mb) |
Abstract: | In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), neglecting the effects of varying channel quality can lead to an unnecessary wastage of precious battery resources and in turn can result in the rapid depletion of sensor energy and the partitioning of the network. Fairness is a critical issue when accessing a shared wireless channel and fair scheduling must be employed to provide the proper flow of information in a WSN. In this paper, we develop a channel adaptive MAC protocol with a traffic-aware dynamic power management algorithm for efficient packet scheduling and queuing in a sensor network, with time varying characteristics of the wireless channel also taken into consideration. The proposed protocol calculates a combined weight value based on the channel state and link quality. Then transmission is allowed only for those nodes with weights greater than a minimum quality threshold and nodes attempting to access the wireless medium with a low weight will be allowed to transmit only when their weight becomes high. This results in many poor quality nodes being deprived of transmission for a considerable amount of time. To avoid the buffer overflow and to achieve fairness for the poor quality nodes, we design a Load prediction algorithm. We also design a traffic aware dynamic power management scheme to minimize the energy consumption by continuously turning off the radio interface of all the unnecessary nodes that are not included in the routing path. By Simulation results, we show that our proposed protocol achieves a higher throughput and fairness besides reducing the delay. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/purl/2076 |
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Channel adaptive MAC protocol with...pdf | (281.1Kb) |
Abstract: | Design of a compact microstrip-fed ultra-wideband antenna suitable for USB dongle and other such space constraint applications is presented. The structure consists of a pentagonal monopole element and a modified ground plane that gives an impedance bandwidth from 2.8 to 12 GHz. Radiation patterns are stable and omni-directional throughout the band with an average gain of 2.84 dBi. The antenna occupies only 11 × 30 mm2 on FR4 substrate with permittivity 4.4. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2339 |
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Dyuthi-P00350.pdf | (507.8Kb) |
Abstract: | Irradiation of a Polymethyl methacrylate target using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser causes plasma formation in the vicinity of the target. The refractive index gradient due to the presence of the plasma is probed using phase-shift detection technique. The phase-shift technique is a simple but sensitive technique for the determination of laser ablation threshold of solids. The number density of laser generated plasma above the ablation threshold from Polymethyl methacrylate is calculated as a function of laser fluence. The number density varies from 2×1016 cm-3 to 2×1017 cm-3 in the fluence interval 2.8-13 J · cm-2. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2603 |
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Dyuthi-P0163.pdf | (258.4Kb) |
Abstract: | We demonstrate the possibility of realizing, all-optical switching in gold nanosol. Two overlapping laser beams are used for this purpose, due to which a low-power beam passing collinear to a high-power beam will undergo cross phase modulation and thereby distort the spatial profile. This is taken to advantage for performing logic operations. We have also measured the threshold pump power to obtain a NOT gate and the minimum response time of the device. Contrary to the general notion that the response time of thermal effects used in this application is of the order of milliseconds, we prove that short pump pulses can result in fast switching. Different combinations of beam splitters and combiners will lead to the formation of other logic functions too. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2607 |
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Dyuthi-P0167.pdf | (970.9Kb) |
Abstract: | Cryptosystem using linear codes was developed in 1978 by Mc-Eliece. Later in 1985 Niederreiter and others developed a modified version of cryptosystem using concepts of linear codes. But these systems were not used frequently because of its larger key size. In this study we were designing a cryptosystem using the concepts of algebraic geometric codes with smaller key size. Error detection and correction can be done efficiently by simple decoding methods using the cryptosystem developed. Approach: Algebraic geometric codes are codes, generated using curves. The cryptosystem use basic concepts of elliptic curves cryptography and generator matrix. Decrypted information takes the form of a repetition code. Due to this complexity of decoding procedure is reduced. Error detection and correction can be carried out efficiently by solving a simple system of linear equations, there by imposing the concepts of security along with error detection and correction. Results: Implementation of the algorithm is done on MATLAB and comparative analysis is also done on various parameters of the system. Attacks are common to all cryptosystems. But by securely choosing curve, field and representation of elements in field, we can overcome the attacks and a stable system can be generated. Conclusion: The algorithm defined here protects the information from an intruder and also from the error in communication channel by efficient error correction methods. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/purl/2007 |
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A Cryptosystem using....pdf | (93.25Kb) |
Abstract: | We define a new graph operator called the P3 intersection graph, P3(G)- the intersection graph of all induced 3-paths in G. A characterization of graphs G for which P-3 (G) is bipartite is given . Forbidden subgraph characterization for P3 (G) having properties of being chordal , H-free, complete are also obtained . For integers a and b with a > 1 and b > a - 1, it is shown that there exists a graph G such that X(G) = a, X(P3( G)) = b, where X is the chromatic number of G. For the domination number -y(G), we construct graphs G such that -y(G) = a and -y (P3(G)) = b for any two positive numbers a > 1 and b. Similar construction for the independence number and radius, diameter relations are also discussed. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1531 |
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Utilities Mathematica.PDF | (5.904Mb) |
Abstract: | In this note,the (t) properties of five class are studied. We proved that the classes of cographs and clique perfect graphs without isolated vertices satisfy the (2) property and the (3) property, but do not satisfy the (t) property for tis greater than equal to 4. The (t) properties of the planar graphs and the perfect graphss are also studied . we obtain a necessary and suffieient conditions for the trestled graph of index K to satisfy the (2) property |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1533 |
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The (t) property of some classes of graphs.PDF | (3.911Mb) |
Abstract: | Machine tool chatter is an unfavorable phenomenon during metal cutting, which results in heavy vibration of cutting tool. With increase in depth of cut, the cutting regime changes from chatter-free cutting to one with chatter. In this paper, we propose the use of permutation entropy (PE), a conceptually simple and computationally fast measurement to detect the onset of chatter from the time series using sound signal recorded with a unidirectional microphone. PE can efficiently distinguish the regular and complex nature of any signal and extract information about the dynamics of the process by indicating sudden change in its value. Under situations where the data sets are huge and there is no time for preprocessing and fine-tuning, PE can effectively detect dynamical changes of the system. This makes PE an ideal choice for online detection of chatter, which is not possible with other conventional nonlinear methods. In the present study, the variation of PE under two cutting conditions is analyzed. Abrupt variation in the value of PE with increase in depth of cut indicates the onset of chatter vibrations. The results are verified using frequency spectra of the signals and the nonlinear measure, normalized coarse-grained information rate (NCIR). |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/2598 |
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Dyuthi-P0158.pdf | (263.3Kb) |
Abstract: | The eigenvalue of a graph is the eigenvalue of its adjacency matrix . A graph G is integral if all of its cigenvalues are integers. In this paper some new classes of integral graphs are constructed. |
URI: | http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/purl/1535 |
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Some new integral graphs.PDF | (3.692Mb) |
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