Dyuthi @ CUSAT
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui
The Dyuthi digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.2015-08-03T13:10:23ZModification of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Blend Using Nanokaolinite Clay and E-Glass Fibre: Preparation, Characterization and Micromechanical Modelling
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4981
Modification of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Blend Using Nanokaolinite Clay and E-Glass Fibre: Preparation, Characterization and Micromechanical Modelling
Anjana, R; George, K E
Upgrading two widely used standard plastics, polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), and generating a variety of useful engineering materials based on these blends have been the main objective of this study. Upgradation was effected by using nanomodifiers and/or fibrous modifiers. PP and HDPE were selected for modification due to their attractive inherent properties and wide spectrum of use. Blending is the engineered method of producing new materials with tailor made properties. It has the advantages of both the materials. PP has high tensile and flexural strength and the HDPE acts as an impact modifier in the resultant blend. Hence an optimized blend of PP and HDPE was selected as the matrix material for upgradation. Nanokaolinite clay and E-glass fibre were chosen
for modifying PP/HDPE blend. As the first stage of the work, the mechanical, thermal, morphological, rheological, dynamic mechanical and crystallization characteristics of the polymer nanocomposites prepared with PP/HDPE blend and different surface modified nanokaolinite clay were analyzed. As the second stage of the work, the effect of simultaneous inclusion of nanokaolinite clay (both N100A and N100) and short glass fibres are investigated. The presence of nanofiller has increased the properties of hybrid composites to a greater extent than micro composites. As the last stage, micromechanical modeling of both nano and hybrid
A composite is carried out to analyze the behavior of the composite under load bearing conditions. These theoretical analyses indicate that the polymer-nanoclay interfacial characteristics partially converge to a state of perfect interfacial bonding (Takayanagi model) with an iso-stress (Reuss IROM) response. In the case of hybrid composites the experimental data follows the trend of Halpin-Tsai model. This implies that matrix and filler experience varying amount of strain and interfacial adhesion between filler and matrix and also between the two fillers which play a vital role in determining the modulus of the hybrid composites.A significant observation from this study is that the requirement of higher fibre loading for efficient reinforcement of polymers can be substantially reduced by the presence of nanofiller together with much lower fibre content in the composite. Hybrid composites with both nanokaolinite clay and micron sized E-glass fibre as reinforcements in PP/HDPE matrix will generate a novel class of high performance, cost effective engineering material.
2014-11-01T00:00:00ZStudies on nitrifying microorganisms in Cochin Estuary and adjacent coastal waters
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4980
Studies on nitrifying microorganisms in Cochin Estuary and adjacent coastal waters
Vipindas, P V; Shanta, Achuthankutty
This thesis entitled “Studies on Nitrifying Microorganisms in Cochin
Estuary and Adjacent Coastal Waters” reports for the first time the spatial andtemporal variations in the abundance and activity of nitrifiers (Ammonia oxidizingbacteria-AOB; Nitrite oxidizing bacteria- NOB and Ammonia oxidizing archaea-AOA) from the Cochin Estuary (CE), a monsoon driven, nutrient rich tropicalestuary along the southwest coast of India. To fulfil the above objectives, field observations were carried out for aperiod of one year (2011) in the CE. Surface (1 m below surface) and near-bottomwater samples were collected from four locations (stations 1 to 3 in estuary and 4 in coastal region), covering pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons.
Station 1 is a low saline station (salinity range 0-10) with high freshwater influx
While stations 2 and 3 are intermediately saline stations (salinity ranges 10-25).
Station 4 is located ~20 km away from station 3 with least influence of fresh water
and is considered as high saline (salinity range 25- 35) station. Ambient physicochemical parameters like temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO),
Ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate of surface and bottom waters
were measured using standard techniques. Abundance of Eubacteria, total Archaea
and ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB) were quantified using
Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) with oligonucleotide probes labeled withCy3. Community structure of AOB and AOA was studied using PCR Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. PCR products were cloned and sequenced to determine approximate phylogenetic affiliations. Nitrification rate in the water samples were analyzed using chemical NaClO3 (inhibitor of nitrite oxidation), and ATU (inhibitor of ammonium oxidation). Contribution of AOA and AOB in ammonia oxidation process was measured based on the recovered ammonia oxidation rate. The contribution of AOB and AOA were analyzed after inhibiting the activities of AOB and AOA separately using specific protein inhibitors. To understand the factors influencing or controlling nitrification, various statistical tools were used viz. Karl Pearson’s correlation (to find out the relationship between environmental parameters, bacterial abundance and activity), three-way ANOVA (to find out the significant variation between observations), Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) (for the discrimination of stations based on observations), Multivariate statistics, Principal components analysis (PCA) and Step up multiple regression model (SMRM) (First order interaction effects were applied to determine the significantly contributing biological and environmental parameters to the numerical abundance of nitrifiers).
In the CE, nitrification is modulated by the complex interplay between different nitrifiers and environmental variables which in turn is dictated by various hydrodynamic characteristics like fresh water discharge and seawater influx brought in by river water discharge and flushing. AOB in the CE are more adapted to varying environmental conditions compared to AOA though the diversity of AOA is higher than AOB. The abundance and seasonality of AOB and NOB is influenced by the concentration of ammonia in the water column. AOB are the major players in modulating ammonia oxidation process in the water column of CE. The distribution pattern and seasonality of AOB and NOB in the CE suggest that these organisms coexist, and are responsible for modulating the entire nitrification process in the estuary. This process is fuelled by the cross feeding among different nitrifiers, which in turn is dictated by nutrient levels especially ammonia. Though nitrification modulates the increasing anthropogenic ammonia concentration the anthropogenic inputs have to be controlled to prevent eutrophication and associated environmental changes.
2015-03-01T00:00:00ZStudies on scattering and thermodynamics of black holes in f(R) theory and Einstein's theory
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4979
Studies on scattering and thermodynamics of black holes in f(R) theory and Einstein's theory
Saneesh, Sebastian; Kuriakose, V C
One of the interesting consequences of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is the black hole solutions. Until the observation made by Hawking in 1970s, it was believed that black holes are perfectly black. The General Theory of Relativity says that black holes are objects which absorb both matter and radiation crossing the event horizon. The event horizon is a surface through which even light is not able to escape. It acts as a one sided membrane that allows the passage of particles only in one direction i.e. towards the center of black holes. All the particles that are absorbed by black hole increases the mass of the black hole and thus the size of event horizon also increases. Hawking showed in 1970s that when applying quantum mechanical laws to black holes they are not perfectly black but they can emit radiation. Thus the black hole can have temperature known as Hawking temperature. In the thesis we have studied some aspects of black holes in f(R) theory of gravity and Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. The scattering of scalar field in this background space time studied in the first chapter shows that the extended black hole will scatter scalar waves and have a scattering cross section and applying tunneling mechanism we have obtained the Hawking temperature of this black hole. In the following chapter we have investigated the quasinormal properties of the extended black hole. We have studied the electromagnetic and scalar perturbations in this space-time and find that the black hole frequencies are complex and show exponential damping indicating the black hole is stable against the perturbations. In the present study we show that not only the black holes exist in modified gravities but also they have similar properties of black hole space times in General Theory of Relativity. 2 + 1 black holes or three dimensional black holes are simplified examples of more complicated four dimensional black holes. Thus these models of black holes are known as toy models of black holes in four dimensional black holes in General theory of Relativity. We have studied some properties of these types of black holes in Einstein model (General Theory of Relativity). A three dimensional black hole known as MSW is taken for our study. The thermodynamics and spectroscopy of MSW black hole are studied and obtained the area spectrum which is equispaced and
different thermo dynamical properties are studied. The Dirac perturbation of this three dimensional black hole is studied and the resulting quasinormal spectrum of this three dimensional black hole is obtained. The different quasinormal frequencies are tabulated in tables and these values show an exponential damping of oscillations indicating the black hole is stable against the mass less Dirac perturbation. In General Theory of Relativity almost all solutions contain singularities. The cosmological solution and different black hole solutions of Einstein's field equation contain singularities. The regular black hole solutions are those which are solutions of Einstein's equation and have no singularity at the origin. These solutions possess event horizon but have no central singularity. Such a solution was first put forward by Bardeen. Hayward proposed a similar regular black hole solution. We have studied the thermodynamics and spectroscopy of Hay-ward regular black holes. We have also obtained the different thermodynamic properties and the area spectrum. The area spectrum is a function of the horizon radius. The entropy-heat capacity curve has a discontinuity at some value
of entropy showing a phase transition.
2014-12-01T00:00:00ZStudy on period search methods of variable stars: Application to ASAS and CRTS databases
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in:80/xmlui/handle/purl/4978
Study on period search methods of variable stars: Application to ASAS and CRTS databases
Shaju, K Y; Ramesh Babu, T
Study on variable stars is an important topic of modern astrophysics. After
the invention of powerful telescopes and high resolving powered CCD’s, the
variable star data is accumulating in the order of peta-bytes. The huge amount
of data need lot of automated methods as well as human experts. This thesis
is devoted to the data analysis on variable star’s astronomical time series data
and hence belong to the inter-disciplinary topic, Astrostatistics.
For an observer on earth, stars that have a change in apparent brightness
over time are called variable stars. The variation in brightness may be regular
(periodic), quasi periodic (semi-periodic) or irregular manner (aperiodic) and
are caused by various reasons. In some cases, the variation is due to some
internal thermo-nuclear processes, which are generally known as intrinsic vari-
ables and in some other cases, it is due to some external processes, like eclipse
or rotation, which are known as extrinsic variables. Intrinsic variables can
be further grouped into pulsating variables, eruptive variables and flare stars.
Extrinsic variables are grouped into eclipsing binary stars and chromospheri-
cal stars. Pulsating variables can again classified into Cepheid, RR Lyrae, RV
Tauri, Delta Scuti, Mira etc. The eruptive or cataclysmic variables are novae,
supernovae, etc., which rarely occurs and are not periodic phenomena. Most
of the other variations are periodic in nature.
Variable stars can be observed through many ways such as photometry,
spectrophotometry and spectroscopy. The sequence of photometric observa-
xiv
tions on variable stars produces time series data, which contains time, magni-
tude and error. The plot between variable star’s apparent magnitude and time
are known as light curve. If the time series data is folded on a period, the plot
between apparent magnitude and phase is known as phased light curve. The
unique shape of phased light curve is a characteristic of each type of variable
star. One way to identify the type of variable star and to classify them is by
visually looking at the phased light curve by an expert. For last several years,
automated algorithms are used to classify a group of variable stars, with the
help of computers.
Research on variable stars can be divided into different stages like observa-
tion, data reduction, data analysis, modeling and classification. The modeling
on variable stars helps to determine the short-term and long-term behaviour
and to construct theoretical models (for eg:- Wilson-Devinney model for eclips-
ing binaries) and to derive stellar properties like mass, radius, luminosity, tem-
perature, internal and external structure, chemical composition and evolution.
The classification requires the determination of the basic parameters like pe-
riod, amplitude and phase and also some other derived parameters. Out of
these, period is the most important parameter since the wrong periods can
lead to sparse light curves and misleading information.
Time series analysis is a method of applying mathematical and statistical
tests to data, to quantify the variation, understand the nature of time-varying
phenomena, to gain physical understanding of the system and to predict future
behavior of the system. Astronomical time series usually suffer from unevenly
spaced time instants, varying error conditions and possibility of big gaps. This
is due to daily varying daylight and the weather conditions for ground based
observations and observations from space may suffer from the impact of cosmic
ray particles.
Many large scale astronomical surveys such as MACHO, OGLE, EROS,
xv
ROTSE, PLANET, Hipparcos, MISAO, NSVS, ASAS, Pan-STARRS, Ke-
pler,ESA, Gaia, LSST, CRTS provide variable star’s time series data, even
though their primary intention is not variable star observation. Center for
Astrostatistics, Pennsylvania State University is established to help the astro-
nomical community with the aid of statistical tools for harvesting and analysing
archival data. Most of these surveys releases the data to the public for further
analysis.
There exist many period search algorithms through astronomical time se-
ries analysis, which can be classified into parametric (assume some underlying
distribution for data) and non-parametric (do not assume any statistical model
like Gaussian etc.,) methods. Many of the parametric methods are based on
variations of discrete Fourier transforms like Generalised Lomb-Scargle peri-
odogram (GLSP) by Zechmeister(2009), Significant Spectrum (SigSpec) by
Reegen(2007) etc. Non-parametric methods include Phase Dispersion Minimi-
sation (PDM) by Stellingwerf(1978) and Cubic spline method by Akerlof(1994)
etc.
Even though most of the methods can be brought under automation, any of
the method stated above could not fully recover the true periods. The wrong
detection of period can be due to several reasons such as power leakage to
other frequencies which is due to finite total interval, finite sampling interval
and finite amount of data. Another problem is aliasing, which is due to the
influence of regular sampling. Also spurious periods appear due to long gaps
and power flow to harmonic frequencies is an inherent problem of Fourier
methods. Hence obtaining the exact period of variable star from it’s time
series data is still a difficult problem, in case of huge databases, when subjected
to automation. As Matthew Templeton, AAVSO, states “Variable star data
analysis is not always straightforward; large-scale, automated analysis design
is non-trivial”. Derekas et al. 2007, Deb et.al. 2010 states “The processing of
xvi
huge amount of data in these databases is quite challenging, even when looking
at seemingly small issues such as period determination and classification”.
It will be beneficial for the variable star astronomical community, if basic
parameters, such as period, amplitude and phase are obtained more accurately,
when huge time series databases are subjected to automation. In the present
thesis work, the theories of four popular period search methods are studied, the
strength and weakness of these methods are evaluated by applying it on two
survey databases and finally a modified form of cubic spline method is intro-
duced to confirm the exact period of variable star. For the classification of new
variable stars discovered and entering them in the “General Catalogue of Vari-
able Stars” or other databases like “Variable Star Index“, the characteristics
of the variability has to be quantified in term of variable star parameters.
2013-11-01T00:00:00Z